International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
At the time of the 2005 Review of the Fund’s Transparency Policy, the Executive Board required regular updates on trends in implementing the transparency policy. This report provides an overview of recent developments, reflecting information on documents considered by the Board in 2019 and their respective publication status up to June 2020, and updating the previous annual report on Key Trends.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & and Review Department
This note provides operational guidance to staff on how to engage on social safeguard issues with low-income countries in both program and surveillance contexts. The note is not intended as a comprehensive guide, and should be used in conjunction with other operational guidance notes, such as those relating to conditionality and surveillance.
This Selected Issues paper reviews the evolution of inequality in Ethiopia and discusses the role of various macroeconomic policies as well as structural factors. With a Gini coefficient of 30, Ethiopia remains among the most egalitarian countries in the world. The most vulnerable households seem to experience less benefit from growth than those in the higher income deciles. In terms of tax revenue collection, Ethiopia faces the typical challenges of a developing country. It is required that Ethiopia builds on its successful experience with the Productive Safety Net Program to address the growing needs of the urban poor.
The modern economy of the Republic of Djibouti is based on rents directly or indirectly originating from the international port of Djibouti and from the country’s strategic position. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper discusses that the growth recorded over the last five years is essentially driven by the increase in foreign direct investment—but especially by the activities of the Port of Djibouti. The informal economy constitutes a major proportion of the economic activities of Djibouti and provides a livelihood for much of the Djibouti population.
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia’s 2007 Article IV Consultation reports on the macroeconomic imbalances and on maintaining medium-term macroeconomic stability while fostering growth potential. Although agriculture continues to be the mainstay of the economy, the expansion has been broad-based, with manufacturing, construction, and services making significant contributions. Expansion of domestic credit has continued to be brisk, reflecting a pickup in private sector economic activity and increasingly negative real interest rates. A critical challenge for Ethiopia is to strike a judicious balance between demand-dampening measures and growth-enhancing structural reforms.
Research summaries on (1) measuring inflation, and (2) strengthening Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) programs through poverty and social impact analysis (PSIA); country study on Spain; listing of contents of Vol. 53, Special Issue of IMF Staff Papers, summary of recently published IMF book entitled "IMF-Supported Programs: Recent Staff Research"; listings of recent external publications by IMF staff members, IMF Working Papers, and visiting scholars at the IMF during January-August 2006.
Boriana Yontcheva, Mr. Peter Isard, Mr. Leslie Lipschitz, and Mr. Alex Mourmouras
Relatively slow progress toward meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by their 2015 target date has added urgency to the challenge of reducing global poverty. The authors of this new book--who include scholars from the IMF, World Bank, Oxford University, and the Center for Global Development--argue that the MDGs cannot be achieved without a substantial scaling up of foreign aid. They show how such increased aid flows must be managed effectively to ensure the greatest benefit. And they offer analysis and insight on a variety of macroeconomic policy implications that both donors and recipients should consider.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.
This paper presents a Joint Staff Advisory Note on the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy. Excessive domestic bank financing of the budget deficit could crowd out the private sector, increase pressure on reserve and inflation targets, and, given the already high levels of domestic debt, increase vulnerability to macroeconomic shocks. Public infrastructure investment recently increased substantially despite the lack of sound cost-benefit analysis. The strong pro-poor emphasis of government expenditure is paying off in terms of improvements in education and provision of health services.