Africa > Ethiopia, The Federal Democratic Republic of

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Ms. Stefania Fabrizio, Davide Furceri, Mr. Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu, Ms. Grace B Li, Mrs. Sandra V Lizarazo Ruiz, Ms. Marina Mendes Tavares, Mr. Futoshi Narita, and Adrian Peralta
Despite sustained economic growth and rapid poverty reductions, income inequality remains stubbornly high in many low-income developing countries. This pattern is a concern as high levels of inequality can impair the sustainability of growth and macroeconomic stability, thereby also limiting countries’ ability to reach the Sustainable Development Goals. This underscores the importance of understanding how policies aimed at boosting economic growth affect income inequality. Using empirical and modeling techniques, the note confirms that macro-structural policies aimed at raising growth payoffs in low-income developing countries can have important distributional consequences, with the impact dependent on both the design of reforms and on country-specific economic characteristics. While there is no one-size-fits-all recipe, the note explores how governments can address adverse distributional consequences of reforms by designing reform packages to make pro-growth policies also more inclusive.
Ms. Stefania Fabrizio, Mr. Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu, Ms. Catherine A Pattillo, Adrian Peralta, Mr. Andrea F Presbitero, Baoping Shang, Ms. Genevieve Verdier, Mrs. Marie T Dal Corso, Kazuaki Washimi, Ms. Lisa L Kolovich, Ms. Monique Newiak, Mr. Martin Cihak, Ms. Inci Ötker, Luis-Felipe Zanna, and Ms. Carol L Baker
The formal launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) sets the global development agenda through 2030, placing significant emphasis on promoting social and environmental sustainability alongside economic growth and poverty reduction. Meeting the SDGs will require actions across a wide range of areas by both national governments and the international community. This paper examines the types of policies that developing countries will need to implement to foster economic transformation, to promote economic and social inclusion, and to meet key environmental objectives. Reducing inequality, achieving gender equity, and pricing energy and water resources appropriately receive particular attention.