The paper suggests an operationally usable framework for the evaluation of growth inclusiveness—the inclusive growth framework (IGF). Based on the data on growth, poverty, and inequality, the framework allows for the quantitative assessment of growth inclusiveness. The assessment relies on the decomposition of the change in poverty into growth, distribution, and decile effects, which can be calculated using the Distributive Analysis Stata Package (DASP). Availability of at least two household surveys is the main precondition for the use of the IGF. The application of the IGF is illustrated with two country cases of Senegal and Djibouti.
The paper examines the poverty-reducing and distributional characteristics of Djibouti’s economic growth, and discusses policies that might help make growth more inclusive. It covers the period between 2002 and 2013, for which comparable household surveys are available. The main findings are that while in the past decade the overall level of poverty in Djibouti declined, there have been no clear signs of improvements in either equality or growth inclusiveness. Growth has not been inclusive and benefitted mainly those in the upper part of the income distribution. These conclusions should be treated as indicative. Progress in poverty reduction and inclusiveness would require not only sustained high growth but also the creation of opportunities in sectors with high earning potential for the poor. Better targeted social policies and more attention to the regional distribution of spending would also help reduce poverty and improve inclusiveness.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that Djibouti is undergoing an investment boom that would accelerate economic growth. Aggregate investment is projected to rise from 26 percent of GDP in 2010–13 to 52 percent in 2014–16. GDP growth is expected to rise from 6 percent in 2014 to about 7 percent in 2015–19. Inflation is projected to pick up from 3 percent in 2014 to 3.3 percent in 2015–19 as the large investment spending fuels demand for housing and basic services. Central bank gross foreign assets are projected to remain strong, permitting full currency board coverage over the period 2015–19.
The modern economy of the Republic of Djibouti is based on rents directly or indirectly originating from the international port of Djibouti and from the country’s strategic position. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper discusses that the growth recorded over the last five years is essentially driven by the increase in foreign direct investment—but especially by the activities of the Port of Djibouti. The informal economy constitutes a major proportion of the economic activities of Djibouti and provides a livelihood for much of the Djibouti population.
This 2008 Article IV Consultation highlights that Djibouti’s macroeconomic performance improved significantly, but inflation pressures are intensifying. Real GDP growth accelerated to 5.3 percent in 2007, driven mainly by foreign direct investment concentrated in the construction and port services. Executive Directors have welcomed Djibouti’s strong economic growth driven by large foreign direct investments in the port and other key sectors of the economy. Directors have also emphasized the importance of maintaining the fiscal consolidation objective, with a view to controlling inflation and creating fiscal space to finance the poverty reduction strategy.
This Joint Staff Advisory Note focuses on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for Djibouti. Djibouti’s National Initiative for Social Development (“Initiative Nationale pour le Développement Social”—INDS) provides a comprehensive vision for economic growth and poverty reduction. Notwithstanding some important achievements of the PRSP-I, overall progress in achieving its objectives has been limited. IMF staff commends the government for a well-designed and ambitious poverty reduction strategy. IMF staff considers that the INDS benefits from better prioritization and draws lessons from the shortcomings in the implementation of the PRSP-I.
The attached Joint Staff Assessment (JSA) of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) on Djibouti reviews poverty reduction objectives and strategies. The authorities invested considerable effort in building national ownership of the PRSP by strengthening the institutional framework. The authorities made a special effort toward filling the knowledge gap on poverty that was identified in the I-PRSP. The staff of the World Bank and the IMF considers that Djibouti’s poverty reduction strategy outlined in the PRSP provides a sound basis for IMF and the International Development Association (IDA) concessional assistance.
This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) on Djibouti explains past strategies and the PRSP formulation process. Djibouti suffers from a gross lack of reliable health statistics. Available information gives only a fragmented picture of the reality, but globally, it reveals a difficult health situation. The promotion of a coherent and integrated employment policy must be one of the cornerstones of the poverty reduction strategy. Being a new country with few human resources, Djibouti’s governance problems considerably limit the effectiveness of government economic and social programs for the poor.
An important challenge for Djibouti is to implement a comprehensive strategy to promote private investment and job creation to reduce poverty. The medium-term macroeconomic outlook is dominated by the authorities' plan to launch a public investment program along with the planned construction of a new deep water seaport. The authorities have improved the expenditure control and monitored the framework, but could further enhance the transparency of public finance. Although Djibouti improved its macroeconomic database in recent years, its statistical system continues to fail owing to changes in quality, frequency, and dissemination.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Following are edited extracts of an address by IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus at the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Frankfurt on October 11. The full text is available on the IMF’s website (www.imf.org).