Mr. Marc G Quintyn, Ms. Rosaria Vega Pansini, and Donato Masciandaro
The Asian financial crisis marked the beginning of worldwide efforts to improve the effectiveness of financial supervision. However, the crisis that started in 2007?08 was a crude awakening: several of these improvements seemed unable to avoid or mitigate the crisis. This paper brings the first systematic analysis of the role of two of these efforts - modifications in the architecture of financial supervision and in supervisory governance - and concludes that they were negatively correlated with economic resilience. Using the emerging distinction between macro- and micro-prudential supervision, we explore to what extent two separate institutions would allow for more checks and balances to improve supervisory governance and, thus, reduce the probability of supervisory failure.
Mr. Marc G Quintyn, Donato Masciandaro, and Ms. María Nieto
In June 2009 a new financial supervisory framework for the European Union (EU) was endorsed, consisting of a macro- and a micro-prudential pillar. The latter is composed of a Steering Committee, a supranational layer and a network of national supervisory authorities at the bottom, de facto establishing a complex multiple principals-multiple agents network. This paper focuses on the network of national agencies. Starting from an analysis of supervisory architectures and governance arrangements, we assess to what extent lack of convergence could undermine efficient and effective supervision. The main conclusion is that harmonization of governance arrangements towards best practice would better align supervisors' incentive structures and, hence, be beneficial for the quality of supervision.
This paper presents key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for the Slovak Republic, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, and Banking Supervision. Successful stabilization and an ambitious structural reform program since 1998 and the rehabilitation and privatization of the public banks in the Slovak Republic have produced a banking and financial sector that appears to be robust to a range of macroeconomic or financial sector shocks. Banking supervision is weak, but the National Bank of Slovakia has launched a medium-term program to strengthen it.
This paper presents key findings of Latvia’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on Observance of Standards and Codes on Banking Supervision; Payment Systems; Securities Regulation; Insurance Regulation; Corporate Governance; and Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency. The assessment reveals that the banking system of Latvia is well capitalized, profitable, and liquid following its recovery from the effects of the Russian crisis in 1998. A notable feature of the financial system is the significant share of nonresident deposits and foreign equity in the banking system and nonresident investment in the securities market.
This paper examines the philosophies which inspired the institution of central banking in Central and Eastern Europe in the interwar years. Influenced by the Financial Section of the League of Nations, the new central banks adopted laws which prohibited or severely restricted the financing of government fiscal debt. They were encouraged to centralize their payments systems and manage exchange rates to keep control of the money supply and achieve monetary stability. Before long they were forced to adopt further provisions in the area of banking supervision to regulate commercial banks. This paper considers the particular cases of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.