Western Hemisphere > Colombia

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Mr. Alberto Behar and Ramin Hassan
In terms of size, the net income balance (IB) is comparable to the trade balance (TB) for many countries. Yet the role of the IB in mitigating external vulnerabilities or complicating external adjustment remains underexplored. This paper studies the role of the IB in stabilizing or destabilizing the current account over the cycle and in crises. Our results show that, due to a negative correlation with the TB, the IB significantly dampens the time series volatility of the current account for most countries. However, the IB generally does not improve during crisis episodes, so current account adjustment occurs entirely through improvements in the TB. The paper also estimates IB semi-elasticities with respect to the exchange rate (ER). Semi-elasticities are small for most countries, so the IB is generally not a significant channel through which the ER stabilizes the current account, and trade-based semi-elasticities are, with some important exceptions, good proxies for current account semi-elasticities used in external sector assessments.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
The current FCL arrangement for Colombia was approved in May 2020. Colombia was cited for its very strong policy frameworks—anchored by a flexible exchange rate, a credible inflation-targeting regime, effective financial sector supervision and regulation, and a structural fiscal rule—and a track record of very strong policy implementation that served as a basis for the economy’s resilience prior to the Covid-19 pandemic.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper explores Chile’s Request for an Arrangement Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL). Chile qualifies for the FCL by virtue of its very strong fundamentals, institutional policy frameworks, track record of economic performance and policy implementation and commitment to maintain such policies in the future. Notwithstanding its very strong fundamentals and policy settings, Chile’s open economy is exposed to substantial external risks as a result of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, including a significant deterioration in global demand for Chilean exports, a sharp decline or reversal of capital inflows toward emerging markets, and an abrupt tightening of global financial conditions. The authorities intend to treat the FCL arrangement as precautionary and temporary, and to exit the arrangement as soon as the 24-month period is completed, conditional on a reduction of risks at the time of the mid-term review.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Colombia’s Request for an Arrangement Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL) and Cancellation of the Current Arrangement. Colombia has very strong policy frameworks—anchored by a flexible exchange rate, a credible inflation targeting-regime, effective financial sector supervision and regulation, and a structural fiscal rule—that have served as a basis for the economy’s resilience prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. During this time, Colombia has made remarkable efforts to integrate a substantial number of migrants from Venezuela that boosted domestic demand but widened external vulnerabilities. The new arrangement under the FCL is expected to help Colombia manage heightened external risks, protect ongoing efforts to effectively respond to the pandemic, integrate migrants, foster inclusive growth, and reduce external vulnerabilities. Despite higher external vulnerabilities, risks, and stress, the new arrangement can be maintained at the same access level because the authorities have built higher external buffers by accumulating significant additional reserves since the 2018 FCL request. The arrangement should boost market confidence, and combined with the comfortable level of international reserves, provide insurance against downside risks.
International Monetary Fund
The COVID-19 pandemic has created severe disruption in the global financial system, with many emerging market and developing countries (EMDCs) facing liquidity shortages. In the context of intensified demand for liquidity and heightened global uncertainty, staff has revisited the 2017 proposal for a new facility to provide liquidity support to the Fund’s membership. This paper proposes the establishment of a new Short-term Liquidity Line (SLL) as a special facility in the General Resources Account (GRA), based on the key features of the 2017 blueprint.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Colombia’s Arrangement Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL) and Cancellation of Current Arrangement. Growth is expected to accelerate in 2018 and further over the medium term underpinned by a rebound in investment and nontraditional exports. Although the ongoing recovery in global growth has reduced some near-term external risks, global financial markets are vulnerable to a sudden, sharp tightening of financial conditions as a result of an unexpected increase in inflation and/or an escalation of trade or geopolitical tensions. Colombia’s exposure to some of these tail risks has increased in line with larger foreign participation in the local government debt market. The IMF staff’s assessment is that Colombia continues to meet the qualification criteria for access to FCL resources.
International Monetary Fund
protracted global uncertainty combined with frequent episodes of capital flow volatility have intensified demand for liquidity support. In response to calls from the IMFC and the G20, the Fund has identified gaps in the global financial safety net (GFSN) and the Fund’s lending toolkit for crisis prevention, including insufficient coverage against liquidity pressures resulting from volatile capital flows. The proposals in this paper draw on the previous Fund work on the adequacy of the GFSN, the review of the Fund’s current toolkit for crisis prevention, and extensive consultations with the membership. The review of the FCL concludes that the FCL has been effective in providing precautionary support against external tail risks. Successor FCL arrangements and associated access levels have been in line with the assessment of external risks and potential balance of payments needs. However, there is scope to strengthen the transparency and predictability of the qualification framework by adding indicator-based thresholds to complement and inform judgment. To enhance crisis resilience while improving the Fund’s toolkit coherence and resource use, the paper proposes three complementary reforms: The establishment of a Short-term Liquidity Swap to provide renewable and reliable liquidity support against potential short-term moderate volatility of capital flows. The proposed instrument is for members with very strong fundamentals and economic policies, and tailored to improve reliability and appeal to users. The use of a core set of indicators with thresholds to guide judgment in FCL qualification. This will improve predictability and transparency while keeping the standards unchanged. The elimination of the PLL to maintain a streamlined and coherent toolkit, given the low use of the PLL, likely reflecting issues of tiering with the FCL. The paper also discusses possible reforms of the current commitment fee policy to promote a more balanced use of Fund resources. Possible options include increasing the commitment fee at high access levels or introducing a new time-based commitment fee.
Mr. Francisco Roch
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the macroeconomic adjustment in Chile, Colombia, and Peru to commodity terms-of-trade shocks. The study is done in two steps: (i) an analysis of the impulse responses of key macroeconomic variables to terms-of-trade shocks and (ii) an event study of the adjustment to the recent decline in commodity prices. The experiences of these countries highlight the importance of flexible exchange rates to help with the adjustment to lower commodity prices, and staying vigilant in addressing depreciation pressures on inflation through tightening monetary policies. On the fiscal front, evidence shows that greater fiscal space, like in Chile and Peru, gives more room for accommodating terms-of-trade shocks.