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Metodij Hadzi-Vaskov, Mr. Luca A Ricci, Alejandro Mariano Werner, and Rene Zamarripa
This paper investigates the performance of the IMF WEO growth forecast revisions across different horizons and country groups. We find that: (i) growth revisions in horizons closer to the actual are generally larger, more volatile, and more negative; (ii) on average, growth revisions are in the right direction, becoming progressively more responsive to the forecast error gap as horizons get closer to the actual year; (iii) growth revisions in systemic economies are relevant for growth revisions in all country groups; (iv) WEO and Consensus Forecast growth revisions are highly correlated; (v) fall-to-spring WEO revisions are more correlated with Consensus Forecasts revisions compared to spring-to-fall revisions; and (vi) across vintages, revisions for a given time horizon are not autocorrelated; within vintages, revisions tend to be positively correlated, suggesting perception of persistent short-term shocks.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Abstract

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is still unfolding around the globe. In Asia, as elsewhere, the virus has ebbed in some countries but surged in others. The global economy is beginning to recover after a sharp contraction in the second quarter of 2020, as nationwide lockdowns are lifted and replaced with more targeted containment measures.

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Abstract

This report discusses fiscal trends in policies aimed at reducing fiscal vulnerabilities and boosting medium-term growth, recent fiscal developments and the fiscal outlook in advanced economies, emerging markets, and low-income developing countries; recent trends in government debt and analysis of changes in fiscal balances, revenue, and spending; potential fiscal risks; and growth from the fiscal policies. It also describes how digitalization can help governments improve implementation of current policy and widen the range of policy options, and opportunities and risks for fiscal policy, including improvements in policy implementation, the design of future policy, and how digitalization can create opportunities for fraud and increase government vulnerabilities.

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Abstract

This publication is a survey by the IMF staff, published twice a year, in the spring and fall, as part of the IMF’s World Economic and Financial Surveys. The current issue analyzes the latest public finance developments, updates medium-term fiscal projections, and assesses policies aimed at placing public finances on a sustainable footing. An analytical chapter employs extensive firm-level data sets as well as new sources of data on tax policy and tax administration for advanced economies, emerging market economies, and low-income developing countries to assess the extent of resource misallocation within countries, focusing on how the design of the tax system may affect resource allocation.

Ms. Marialuz Moreno Badia

Abstract

Drawing on an expanded data set covering emerging markets and low-income countries as well as advanced economies, this issue examines the extent and makeup of global debt and asks what role fiscal policy can play in facilitating the adjustment. The analytical framework explicitly models the interlinkages between private and public debt in analyzing the role of fiscal policy in the deleveraging process. Country case studies provide useful insights on what fiscal policy should and should not do to facilitate deleveraging while minimizing the drag on the economy.

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Abstract

The global economy remains fragile at this time. While the recovery in advanced economies is softening, many emerging market and developing economies have experienced a significant economic slowdown, and some large countries show signs of distress. Global risk aversion has risen, and commodity prices have continued to fall since the April 2015 Fiscal Monitor. The weaker outlook and concerns about the ability of policymakers to provide an adequate and swift policy response have amplified downward risks and clouded global prospects. According to this issue of the Fiscal Monitor, the challenging environment calls for a comprehensive policy response to boost growth and reduce vulnerabilities. In particular, it is critical to identify policies that could lift productivity growth by promoting innovation. Fiscal policy can play an important role in stimulating innovation through its effects on research and development, entrepreneurship, and technology transfer.

International Monetary Fund
The central government publishes comprehensive financial statements, which include the social security funds and balance sheets with all financial assets and liabilities. Audited financial statements are published more than nine months after the end of the fiscal year. The 2004 Fiscal Responsibility Law (LRF), introduced a number of key reforms in public financial management which apply to the central and most of the first layer of sub-national governments. The reforms include establishment of a macro-fiscal framework, fiscal rules, a medium-term budget framework (MTBF), a system of quarterly budget execution reports, and the Federal Council on Fiscal Responsibility (FCFR) which is tasked to enforce the provisions of the LRF However, there are problems with the LRF and its implementation: (i) the out-years of the MTBF are indicative only; (ii) several LRF provisions have been suspended or relaxed since 2009; (iii) some provinces are not complying with their obligations under the law; and (iv) membership in the FCFR is not mandatory and adherence to the LRF is voluntary. The FCFR comprises of representatives of the central government, the city of Buenos Aires,1 and 21 of the 23 provincial governments. Nonetheless, the law has significantly increased the capacity to coordinate fiscal policies across levels of government and individual jurisdictions. Differences between macroeconomic and fiscal forecasts and outturns are not analyzed. Limited information is presented on fiscal risks. Budget execution control and reporting have been strengthened through a series of upgrades to the Integrated Financial Management Information System (SIDIF), which began operations in 1993.
Giang Ho and Mr. Paolo Mauro
Forecasters often predict continued rapid economic growth into the medium and long term for countries that have recently experienced strong growth. Using long-term forecasts of economic growth from the IMF/World Bank staff Debt Sustainability Analyses for a panel of countries, we show that the baseline forecasts are more optimistic than warranted by past international growth experience. Further, by comparing the IMF’s World Economic Outlook forecasts with actual growth outcomes, we show that optimism bias is greater the longer the forecast horizon.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

The World Economic Outlook (WEO) presents the IMF’s leading economists’ analyses of global economic developments during the near and medium terms. It is a respected, one-stop, trusted resource offering remarkable insight, balance, and perspective to decision makers and policymakers worldwide. Published twice yearly, the World Economic Outlook presents the outlook for growth, inflation, trade, employment, and other economic developments in a clear, practical format. Each WEO considers the issues affecting advanced, emerging market, and developing economies. Central bankers, economists, Financial institutions, business leaders, governments, think tanks, and researchers eagerly await this unique investigation of what’s happening and what’s ahead.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

The World Economic Outlook (WEO) presents the IMF’s leading economists’ analyses of global economic developments during the near and medium terms. It is a respected, one-stop, trusted resource offering remarkable insight, balance, and perspective to decision makers and policymakers worldwide. Published twice yearly, the World Economic Outlook presents the outlook for growth, inflation, trade, employment, and other economic developments in a clear, practical format. Each WEO considers the issues affecting advanced, emerging market, and developing economies. Central bankers, economists, Financial institutions, business leaders, governments, think tanks, and researchers eagerly await this unique investigation of what’s happening and what’s ahead.