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International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
The strong post-pandemic economic recovery was leading to an overheating economy and demand-side inflationary pressures. The war in Ukraine, including its impact on commodity prices, has, however, negatively impacted economic activity and further intensified inflationary pressures. With higher inflation for longer, policies should aim at preserving stability over the near-term while supporting the economy adapt to a higher interest rate environment over the medium-term. Although the current sociopolitical situation is less conducive to structural reforms, these remain key to ensuring sustained productivity growth that will support high wage growth and faster income convergence with Western Europe.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
The U.S. economy has staged a strong recovery from the COVID-19 shock. The positive effects of unprecedented policy stimulus, combined with the advantages of a highly flexible economy, have been clear. Just over two years after the COVID-19 shock, the unemployment rate and other measures of labor force underutilization have returned to end-2019 levels and output is close to its pre-pandemic trend. Rapid wage increases for lower income workers have reduced income polarization and poverty fell in 2020. On net, 8.5 million jobs have been created since the end of 2020. In addition, the swift policy response was able to maintain the smooth functioning of U.S. financial markets and prevent the surge of bankruptcies that many had feared.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
The economy rebounded strongly from the pandemic recession last year while prudent macroeconomic management maintained robust buffers. But the war in Ukraine and the international sanctions imposed on Russia and Belarus have resulted in significant spillovers to Moldova, with implications yet to fully play out. At the outbreak of hostilities, FX market pressures triggered significant foreign currency interventions and bank deposit withdrawals, while dollarization has intensified. Moldova has received the highest per capita inflow of Ukrainian refugees (17 percent of the total population), of which about 100,000 refugees (4 percent of the total population) remain in Moldova. Driven by rising food and energy prices, inflation accelerated further above the target band.