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Mr. Jiaqian Chen, Mr. Raphael A Espinoza, Carlos Goncalves, Tryggvi Gudmundsson, Martina Hengge, Zoltan Jakab, and Jesper Lindé
The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent need for policy support have called the traditional separation between fiscal and monetary policies into question. Based on simulations of an open economy DSGE model calibrated to emerging and advance economies and case study evidence, the analysis shows when constraints are binding a more integrated approach of looking at policies can lead to a better policy mix and ultimately better macroeconomic outcomes under certain circumstances. Nonetheless, such an approach entails risks, necessitating a clear assessment of each country’s circumstances as well as safeguards to protect the credibility of the existing institutional framework.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
As of end-2021, Botswana had recovered to its pre-crisis output level thanks to a strong rebound in demand for diamonds, a successful vaccination campaign, and policy support. Fiscal and current account deficits both narrowed sharply, and foreign reserves stabilized but buffers are yet to be fully rebuilt. Inflation exceeded the central bank’s medium-term objective range, while unemployment rose close to record highs. Growth in 2022 and beyond is expected to be around potential, while fiscal and external positions are projected to strengthen with more favorable terms of trade and strong fiscal consolidation. Risks to the outlook are associated with the war in Ukraine, the pandemic, and the implementation of fiscal consolidation and economic diversification plans.