The standards and codes (S&C) initiative was launched in the aftermath of the emerging market crises of the 1990s as part of efforts to strengthen the international financial architecture, with a focus on emerging markets. The initiative has aimed at promoting international standards and codes to improve economic and financial resilience by assisting countries in strengthening their economic institutions and informing World Bank and IMF work. The four previous reviews confirmed a fairly high appreciation of the overall initiative, while also raising questions about the initiative’s link to surveillance and capacity development efforts, weak uptake by market participants, as well as a need to improve traction with policy makers. This review reaffirms the country authorities’ appreciation for S&C work, and its focus and scope are guided by the February 2017 paper.
The objective of the paper is to assess ownership and control links in the GCC corporate sector. The analysis focuses on the integrated ownership and network arising from ownership data available in Bloomberg and GCC stock exchanges. The paper finds that ownership is concentrated in GCC public sector institutions, holding companies, financial institutions, and family groups. The paper then considers the effect of different definitions of control on the distribution of consolidated debt. Debt concentration is maximized when the wedge between ownership and control is the largest. This is the case when the largest shareholder has at least 5 percent of total shares as defined in Zingales (1994).
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This report is an analysis of the insurance core principles of Malaysia. This assessment gives a clear understanding of the regulatory and supervisory framework of the insurance sector of Malaysia. Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) is the best insurance regulator in this region. Six percent of the financial sector accounts for the insurance sector. The assessment did not reveal any current potential sources of significant risk to the Malaysian financial stability from its insurance industry. The Executive Board expects further enhancement for an effective insurance sector.
This paper presents a Detailed Assessment of the Isle of Man’s (IOM) observance of the Insurance Core Principles. Regulation has been strengthened since the 2003 Offshore Financial Center assessment. The Insurance and Pension Authority has been putting in place Memorandums of Understanding with home regulators and is exchanging information extensively. After rapid growth in 2005 and 2006, new business volumes and investment performance have been adversely affected by weaker global equity markets. The number of captives established in the IOM has fallen, reflecting competition from jurisdictions within the European Union.
The Handbook presents an overall analytical framework for assessing financial system stability and developmental needs, providing broad guidance on approaches, methodologies, and techniques of assessing financial systems. Although the Handbook draws substantially on World Bank and IMF experience with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) and from the broader policy and operational work in both institutions, it is designed for generic use in financial sector assessments, whether conducted by country authorities themselves, or by World Bank and IMF teams.
Assessing financial systems' stability has required the IMF to dig deeper into financial sector issues and to include financial integrity elements in its assessments. Integrity elements are increasingly being addressed by international standards. More progress is needed, however, to prepare a comprehensive framework to prevent the abuse of the financial systems by both outsiders and insiders.