This paper develops stylized facts about the inflation process in developing countries, focusing particularly on the relationship between the exchange rate regime and the sources of inflation. Using annual data from 1964 to 1998 for 53 developing countries, we find that money growth and exchange rate changes-factors typically related to fiscal influences-are far more important in countries with floating exchange rate regimes than in those with fixed exchange rates. Instead, inertial factors dominate the inflation process in developing countries with fixed exchange rate regimes.
The papers in this volume address three important issues: the role ofexchange-rate policy in enhancing the competitiveness of African manufactured exports; the steps that can be taken to improve production efficiency; and the role of institutional and structural reforms in promoting competitiveness in manufacturing and in improving Africa's attractiveness to foreign direct investment. An epilogue evaluates progress and developments since the conference that gave rise to this volume was held.
This paper considers the potential variables that have determined economic growth in The Gambia during 1964–98. The results indicate that The Gambia’s aggregate production function exhibits increasing returns to scale, thus supporting the endogenous growth-type model. The impact of private investment—and thus private capital accumulation—on output is large and significant. Furthermore, increases in public investment boost output substantially. Finally, the effects associated with human capital accumulation are positive and statistically significant. The paper also estimates a series on total factor productivity growth that indicates that The Gambia was able to use its resources more efficiently.
Ms. Sonia Brunschwig, Mr. Emilio Sacerdoti, and Mr. Jon Tang
This paper analyzes the impact of human capital on growth, on the basis of refined calculations of human capital, and with a focus on West Africa. Using a growth-accounting methodology, it distinguishes the sources of growth between the accumulation of factors of production and changes in production intensity or efficiency. Private capital is found to be particularly important to growth, but human capital appears not to be significant. The paper also identifies the terms of trade, trade openness, the government deficit, and the share of government investment in total investment as key policy variables affecting growth.