Business and Economics > Production and Operations Management

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Mr. Serhan Cevik and Vibha Nanda
Fiscal sustainability remains a paramount challenge for small economies with high debt and greater vulnerability to climate change. This paper applies the model-based sustainability test for fiscal policy in a panel of 16 Caribbean countries during the period 1980–2018. The results indicate that the coefficient on lagged government debt is positive and statistically significant, implying that fiscal policy in the Caribbean takes corrective actions to counteract an increase in the debt-to-GDP ratio. Nonlinear estimations, however, show that the quadratic debt parameter is negative, which indicates that fiscal policy response is not adequate to ensure sustainability at higher levels of debt. We also find that the fiscal stance tends to be countercyclical on average during the sample period. These empirical results confirm that maintaining prudent fiscal policies and implementing growth-enhancing structural reforms are necessary to build fiscal buffers and ensure debt sustainability with high probability even when negative shocks occur over the long term.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes productivity in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union by exploring two complementary exercises. It computes total factor productivity by extending standard growth accounting frameworks with (1) the impact of natural disasters on the stock and productivity of physical capital; (2) human capital accumulation; and (3) the impact of out-migration on labor and human capital. The paper also analyzes labor productivity, including across economic sectors. The results indicate that the historical deceleration in growth was driven mostly by the declining contribution of total factor productivity, which resulted in stagnation in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Labor productivity measures show that labor is largely allocated in the sectors with relatively lower productivity.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses data issues and postcrisis growth in Barbados. An analysis of the data on Barbados shows very clear inconsistencies among the various measures of economic development. Although real growth seems to have evolved broadly in line with the rest of the Caribbean, nominal growth and inflation developments suggest that Barbados was hit much harder by the global financial crisis. At the same time, these data may also be misleading. Nominal GDP seems to have inadequate coverage, and inflation is much higher in Barbados than in similar economies in the region.
Ms. Nita Thacker, Mr. Sebastian Acevedo Mejia, and Mr. Roberto Perrelli
After earlier success, growth performance in most Caribbean countries has been disappointing since the early 1990s. With slower growth, output has fallen behind that of relevant comparator countries. This paper analyzes the growth experience of the Caribbean countries from a cross country perspective. Three findings stand out. First, the slowdown in growth is explained more by a decline in productivity rather than a lack of investment. Second, tourism has been a significant contributor to higher growth (through both capital accumulation and productivity) and lower output volatility, and in many countries there is scope for further expansion of this sector. Third, the small size and the fact that most of these countries are islands have limited growth. Policies aimed at improving productivity, further development of the tourism sector, and regional integration could pay dividends in terms of higher growth in the region.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
La edición del Boletín del FMI para la web se actualiza varias veces a la semana, y contiene una amplia variedad de artículos sobre temas de actualidad en materia de políticas y economía. Conozca las últimas investigaciones del FMI, lea entrevistas y escuche entrevistas digitales a destacados economistas del FMI sobre importantes cuestiones de la economía mundial.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
En mettant l’accent sur le travail du FMI et sur les grandes questions macroéconomiques et financières internationales, le Bulletin du FMI présente une analyse des développements nationaux, régionaux et mondiaux, des informations sur le travail, les politiques, les réformes et les activités d'assistance technique du FMI, les conclusions d'études de calibre mondial, des données essentielles qui ne sont souvent pas disponibles ailleurs, ainsi que des rapports sur les discussions économiques et financières au sein du FMI et ailleurs. Publié douze fois par an, ce bulletin de seize pages s'adresse à un large public : dirigeants, analystes, chercheurs, étudiants et journalistes. Disponible en anglais, français et espagnol.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
De Rato in Brazil; Article IV summaries: Pakistan, Ukraine, CEMAC; Dawson on IMF's transparency revolution; Capital flight, institutions, and instability; Eastern Caribbean; Germany's regulation; Kazakhstan's non-oil sector; Trade, aid, and growth.
Mr. Paul Cashin
This paper identifies and describes key features of Caribbean business cycles during the period 1963-2003. In particular, the chronologies in the Caribbean classical cycle (expansions and contractions in the level of output) and growth cycle (periods of above-trend and below-trend rates of economic growth) are identified. It is found that Caribbean classical cycles are longer-lived than those of developed countries and non-Caribbean developing countries. While there are large asymmetries in the duration and amplitude of phases in the Caribbean classical cycle, on both measures the Caribbean growth cycle is much more symmetric. Further, there is some evidence of synchronization among the classical cycles of Caribbean countries, and stronger evidence of synchronization of Caribbean growth cycles.