Business and Economics > Sustainable Development

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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper on the Solomon Islands quantifies additional spending needs for Solomon Islands to achieve key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets by 2030. The estimate indicates annual additional spending needs of about 6.9 percent of 2030 gross domestic product. Higher investment in energy infrastructure, including on renewable energy, is a key priority to strengthening climate change adaptation and paving the way toward a low-carbon transition. Creating fiscal space for projects with climate-proofing components through budget reallocation, while improving spending efficiency, would raise economic returns by building climate resilience. An integrated financing strategy with a mix of additional concessional financing and front-loaded fiscal measures, including domestic revenue mobilization, is needed and should be properly sequenced to achieve SDGs by 2030. The SDGs and climate commitment should be integrated into the existing public financial management reform agenda to achieve climate-sensitive development goals.
Fernanda Brollo, Emine Hanedar, and Mr. Sébastien Walker
This paper assesses the additional spending required to make substantial progress towards achieving the SDGs in Pakistan. We focus on critical areas of human (education and health) and physical (electricity, roads, and water and sanitation) capital. For each sector, we document the progress to date, assess where Pakistan stands relative to its peers, highlight key challenges, and estimate the additional spending required to make substantial progress. The estimates for the additional spending are derived using the IMF SDG costing methodology. We find that to achieve the SDGs in these sectors would require additional annual spending of about 16 percent of GDP in 2030 from the public and private sectors combined.
Victor Duarte Lledo and Mr. Roberto Perrelli
This paper uses a novel macroeconomic framework to identify policy and financing options to help Rwanda achieve its sustainable development goals (SDGs). Under current policies, Rwanda would meet its SDGs right after 2050. Active policies that combine fiscal reforms and higher private sector participation could fulfill more than one third of Rwanda’s post-pandemic SDG financing gap, enabling the country to meet its SDG targets by 2040. For Rwanda to meet its SDGs by 2030, active policies would need to be complemented with about 13¾ percentage points of GDP in additional resources annually until then.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The contents of this report constitute technical advice provided by the staff of the IMF to the authorities of Nigeria in response to their request for technical assistance. Unlocking the potential of a rapidly growing population requires substantial improvements in human and physical capital. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and its largest economy. Recognizing challenges, Nigeria has embraced the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda. The Economic Recovery and Growth Plan 2017–2020 gives prominence to economic, social and environmental issues. This report assesses additional spending associated with making substantial progress along the SDGs. The report focuses on critical areas of human and physical capital. For each sector, the report documents progress to date, assesses Nigeria relative to peers, highlights challenges, and estimates the spending to make substantial SDG progress. Nigeria has shown gradual improvements in education. A gradual and strategic approach should be considered given the relatively large additional spending.
Delphine Prady and Mouhamadou Sy
This paper documents the additional spending that is required for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to achieve meaningful progress in SDGs by 2030. Benin and Rwanda are presented in detail through case studies. The main lessons are: i) average additional spending across SSA is significant, at 19 percent of GDP in 2030; ii) countries must prioritize their development objectives according to their capacity to deliver satisfactory outcomes, iii) financing strategies should articulate multiple sources given the scale of additional spending, and iv) strong national ownership of SDGs is key and should be reflected in long-term development plans and medium-term policy commitments.
Vitor Gaspar, Mr. David Amaglobeli, Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Delphine Prady, and Mauricio Soto
The goal of this paper is to estimate the additional annual spending required for meaningful progress on the SDGs in these areas. Our estimates refer to additional spending in 2030, relative to a baseline of current spending to GDP in these sectors. Toward this end, we apply an innovative costing methodology to a sample of 155 countries: 49 low- income developing countries, 72 emerging market economies, and 34 advanced economies. And we refine the analysis with five country studies: Rwanda, Benin, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Guatemala.
International Monetary Fund
Attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will require that the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries continue their considerable past achievements. The Millennium Development Goals—which were to have been met by 2015—helped focus attention on achieving progress towards poverty reduction, better health outcomes, and improvements in education in the ASEAN developing countries. The 17 SDGs—adopted in 2015 and to be met by 2030—cover a wider set of interlinked development objectives, such as inclusion and environmental sustainability, which are important for all countries, including all ASEAN member countries. ASEAN countries have made significant progress in improving incomes and economic opportunities, including for women, and reducing poverty since 2000. Reflecting the economic dynamism of the region, strong income growth, structural transformation, and infrastructure improvements continue to support sustainable development in ASEAN. With continued income growth and strong policy efforts, most ASEAN countries are on track to eradicate absolute poverty by 2030, a major milestone. Also, several ASEAN countries already do relatively well in terms of gender equality. As a result, given support from continued income gains, economic welfare in ASEAN countries is expected to continue converging towards advanced Asia levels. Ensuring more inclusive and environmentally sustainable growth presents a key challenge for ASEAN. Despite some progress, income inequality remains relatively high in several countries and the shift towards manufacturing strains environmental sustainability. These challenges hamper ASEAN welfare convergence relative to advanced Asia. Policies to close these gaps in sustainable development can lead to significant gains. For the lower-middle-income ASEAN countries, in particular, more determined policy efforts are needed to improve infrastructure, as well as health and education outcomes. Remaining sustainable development challenges call for comprehensive, country-specific SDG strategies formulated in the context of national development plans and close monitoring through the voluntary review process. Pursuing sustainable development entails sizeable spending needs. Estimates for Indonesia and Vietnam, the two cases studies considered in this paper, show that reaching the level of best performers in their income group in infrastructure, health, and education by 2030 could entail an additional cost of 5½–6½ percent of GDP per year. While development needs vary across countries, estimates suggest large spending needs for most ASEAN countries. Meeting them will require efforts on multiple fronts, including improvements in spending efficiency, tax capacity, and support from the private sector. For developing ASEAN countries, concessional financing from development partners will be required. The IMF continues to engage ASEAN countries in key areas as they pursue their SDGs. As called for in their mandates, ASEAN and the IMF both strive for economic growth and sustainable development through economic integration and collaboration among their member countries. The IMF has increased its engagement with ASEAN countries to support their policy efforts through its policy diagnostics, advice, and capacity development. ASEAN countries have also received support through IMF initiatives in strengthening revenue mobilization, building state capacity for infrastructure provision, pursuing economic and financial inclusion, addressing the challenges of climate change, strengthening economic institutions for good governance, and building statistical capacity. While fundamental reforms to improve sustainable development take time to bear fruit, there is evidence that efforts have started to pay off.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper on Kyrgyz Republic highlights that the period 2009 through filled with symbolic events marked a new milestone in the Kyrgyz Republic development and will enter the country’s history as the period of strength test for the Kyrgyz statehood and entire public administration system including socio-political, economic, environmental, financial and other areas of development management. The country development background during that period included the world financial crisis and growing uncertainty on world markets which created risks for all market actors including the Kyrgyzstan’s key trade partners such as Russia, Kazakhstan, and China. The government officially declared the country’s sustainable development-oriented policy. For Kyrgyzstan as a country with its still high poverty level, particularly in rural areas, and limited natural and financial resources, the sustainable development policy seems today’s logically and politically justified choice. The sustainable development model itself suggests striving for systemic, comprehensiveness, and balance in development. Transition to sustainable development suggests considering economic growth through the prism of human values and reasonable use of natural resources.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
Executive Directors commend Bangladesh in addressing the major challenges to growth and poverty reduction. The strategy is comprehensive and confronts the key issues impeding sustainable development and inclusive growth in Bangladesh. Implementing sound macro-financial policies, intensifying revenue mobilization, improving the business environment, ensuring trade liberalization, and improving governance and accountability are top priorities. Actions should be sequenced according to these priorities. Severe external shocks could reignite macroeconomic pressures and undermine socioeconomic targets.