Business and Economics > Sustainable Development

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Delphine Prady and Mouhamadou Sy
This paper documents the additional spending that is required for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to achieve meaningful progress in SDGs by 2030. Benin and Rwanda are presented in detail through case studies. The main lessons are: i) average additional spending across SSA is significant, at 19 percent of GDP in 2030; ii) countries must prioritize their development objectives according to their capacity to deliver satisfactory outcomes, iii) financing strategies should articulate multiple sources given the scale of additional spending, and iv) strong national ownership of SDGs is key and should be reflected in long-term development plans and medium-term policy commitments.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept., International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, and Review Department
La question des dépenses sociales connaît un vif regain d'intérêt depuis une dizaine d’années. La montée des inégalités et le nécessaire soutien des populations vulnérables focalisent de plus en plus d’attention, surtout depuis la crise financière mondiale. Parallèlement, le FMI a multiplié ses travaux sur les dépenses sociales. Ce document propose une stratégie pour guider l’action du FMI concernant les différents aspects des dépenses sociales.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept., International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, and Review Department
Interest in social spending issues has intensified over the last decade. This reflects concerns about rising inequality and the need to support vulnerable groups, especially in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. In line with this, the Fund has also increased its engagement on social spending issues. This paper outlines a strategy to guide IMF engagement on social spending issues going forward.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept., International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, and Review Department
Interest in social spending issues has intensified over the last decade. This reflects concerns about rising inequality and the need to support vulnerable groups, especially in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. In line with this, the Fund has also increased its engagement on social spending issues. This paper outlines a strategy to guide IMF engagement on social spending issues going forward.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & and Review Department
The paper reviews the implementation of the initiatives the IMF committed to in 2015 to support developing countries in pursuing the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, including (i) strengthening national tax systems; (ii) tackling large infrastructure gaps; (iii) promoting economic inclusion; (iv) the development of domestic financial markets; (v) intensifying engagement in fragile and conflict-affected states; (vi) improving economic statistics; (vii) expanding the financial safety net for developing countries; and (viii) addressing macroeconomic aspects of climate change. The implementation record to date shows that there has been a large scaling up of IMF support for the 2030 development agenda. The IMF has also engaged in other initiatives of direct relevance for supporting the 2030 development agenda, including adopting a framework to assess corruption vulnerabilities and developing a broad framework for assessing the spending levels needed to reach key SDGs. The paper draws lessons learned from the implementation of the various initiative to inform future IMF engagements.
International Monetary Fund
While growth in advanced economies is losing momentum amid trade tensions and policy uncertainty, activity in many emerging and low-income developing countries (EMDEs) has remained more robust, supported by still favorable financing conditions. Differences across EMDEs are large, however, and downside risks are building. Policy priorities include enhancing resilience in response to a more challenging global environment, creating fiscal space for essential development spending, containing debt vulnerabilities, and promoting strong and inclusive growth. Strengthening revenue generating capacity, enhancing public spending efficiency, and addressing infrastructure gaps are critical for reaching the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.
Vitor Gaspar, Mr. David Amaglobeli, Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Delphine Prady, and Mauricio Soto
The goal of this paper is to estimate the additional annual spending required for meaningful progress on the SDGs in these areas. Our estimates refer to additional spending in 2030, relative to a baseline of current spending to GDP in these sectors. Toward this end, we apply an innovative costing methodology to a sample of 155 countries: 49 low- income developing countries, 72 emerging market economies, and 34 advanced economies. And we refine the analysis with five country studies: Rwanda, Benin, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Guatemala.