Business and Economics > Natural Resource Extraction

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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Following a coup d’état in September 2021 and a year of socio-political tension, the situation has stabilized after the authorities agreed with ECOWAS on a revised, shorter (24-month) transition calendar. While the non-mining sector remains weakened by the subsequent shocks—the pandemic, political uncertainty, the global food and fuel price shock and ensuing food insecurity—overall growth remains buoyant, driven by strong mining production. Inflation hovered around 12 percent for most of 2021 and 2022, despite significant international prices pressures. Food insecurity became increasingly acute during 2022 stemming from the price shock and could be exacerbated next year.
Jean-Marc B. Atsebi, Rasmané Ouedraogo, and Regina S. Séri
The literature on the effects of natural resources on education is mixed and inconclusive. In this paper, we adopt an innovative approach by exploring the effects of mineral discoveries and productions on intergenerational educational mobility (IM), linking parents to the children education levels for more than 14 million individuals across 28 African countries and 2,890 districts. We find that mineral discoveries and productions positively affect educational IM for primary education in Africa for individuals exposed to the mineral sites and living in districts with discoveries. Specifically, the probability of upward primary IM increases by 2.7 percentage points (pp.) following mineral discoveries and 6.7 pp. following mineral productions. Downward primary IM decreases by 1.2 pp. following both mineral discoveries and productions. These positive effects are increasing for individuals born later after discoveries and productions, for males, and individuals living in the urban area. However, no significant effects are found for secondary and tertiary educational IM. Finally, we explore the income and returns to education channels through which mineral discoveries and productions affect educational IM.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
In October 2021, the MEF asked Congress for the delegation of powers to legislate on tax matters with the aim of increasing tax collections and doing so by adding progressivity to the Peruvian tax system. The initiative being developed by the MEF contains (tentatively, to date) around 40 specific measures—some administrative, others related to tax policy—that the MEF hopes will, as a whole, generate additional revenue for the treasury. The tax collection impact of quite a few of the measures (including those pertaining to the mining sector) has not been estimated, whereas the measures for which there is a calculation are estimated to bring in a little over 1 percent of GDP in revenues. Given Peru’s low level of tax collections, both relative to its own historical trends as well as those of other countries in the region, the amount expected to be collected with the proposed reform is modest. However, increasing tax collections by enhancing progressivity would appear to be the right approach.