Business and Economics > Industries: Financial Services

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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The CBvCSM is the sole supervisory authority for all regulated financial institutions operating locally and in the offshore (or international) sector, as well as the stock exchange in Curacao and St Maarten. The financial sector comprises different types of institutions, which include banks and non-bank institutions, insurance companies (both Life, and Non-life), securities intermediaries, asset management firms, investments institutions, fund administrators, management of pension funds, reinsurers, and trust companies.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
After a number of critical setbacks and delays in the 16 months since program approval, the authorities have taken important corrective actions to address shocks to program objectives. Early tension around the authorities’ commitment to uphold the independence of the National Bank of Ukraine required a pause to assess policy continuity and to determine possible corrective actions. A prior action for this review and new commitments by the authorities provide a way forward in protecting a key policy pillar under the program. Similarly, adverse Constitutional Court rulings challenged the anticorruption framework in fundamental ways that required restoring its effectiveness before the review could proceed. In a push to make progress on delayed structural benchmarks, the authorities have recently met seven of the nine structural benchmarks set at the time of the program request.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Oversight of the Korean financial system is broadly effective. Korea’s Financial Services Commission (FSC) and Financial Supervisory Service (FSS) have in place regulatory and supervisory regimes in line with international standards with only a few remaining gaps. The authorities have addressed most of the recommendations of the previous FSAP and made good progress in benchmarking their frameworks with the Basel Core Principles (BCP), the Insurance Core Principles (ICP) and the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) Objectives and Principles for Securities Supervision (IOP).
Mr. Ashraf Khan
This paper describes how behavioral elements are relevant to financial supervision, regulation, and central banking. It focuses on (1) behavioral effects of norms (social, legal, and market); (2) behavior of others (internalization, identification, and compliance); and (3) psychological biases. It stresses that financial supervisors, regulators, and central banks have not yet realized the full potential that these behavioral elements hold. To do so, they need to devise a behavioral approach that includes aspects relating to individual and group behavior. The paper provides case examples of experiments with such an approach, including behavioral supervision. Finally, it highlights areas for further research.
Richard Koss and Xinrui Shi
The sharp rise of house prices in China’s Tier-1 cities has fostered a great deal of commentary about the possibility of bubbles forming there. However, China’s unique housing market characteristics make it difficult to assess the macroeconomic severity of bursting bubbles, even if they exist. These include the setting of land supply and prices by the government, among many others. The presence of overbuilt “ghost cities” greatly complicates the ability of traditional macroeconomic policies to address these concerns. This paper looks at proposals to shore up the mortgage underwriting and legal infrastructure to help China withstand the impact of falling prices, should this occur.
Rima Turk-Ariss
Concerns about excessive variability in bank risk weights have prompted their review by regulators. This paper provides prima facie evidence on the extent of risk weight heterogeneity across broad asset classes and by country of counterparty for major banks in the European Union using internal models. It also finds that corporate risk weights are sensitive to the riskiness of an average representative firm, but not to a market indicator of a firm’s probablity of default. Under plausible yet severe hypothetical scenarios for harmonized risk weights, counterfactual capital ratios would decline significantly for some banks, but they would not experience a shortfall relative to Basel III’s minimum requirements. This, however, does not preclude falling short of meeting additional national supervisory capital requirements.
International Monetary Fund
The standards and codes (S&C) initiative was launched in the aftermath of the emerging market crises of the 1990s as part of efforts to strengthen the international financial architecture, with a focus on emerging markets. The initiative has aimed at promoting international standards and codes to improve economic and financial resilience by assisting countries in strengthening their economic institutions and informing World Bank and IMF work. The four previous reviews confirmed a fairly high appreciation of the overall initiative, while also raising questions about the initiative’s link to surveillance and capacity development efforts, weak uptake by market participants, as well as a need to improve traction with policy makers. This review reaffirms the country authorities’ appreciation for S&C work, and its focus and scope are guided by the February 2017 paper.