Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Peter Dohlman, Mr. Cory Hillier, Mr. Martin D Kaufman, Florian Misch, Mr. James Roaf, Mr. Christophe J Waerzeggers, and Miss Kyung Kwak
This Climate Note discusses the rationale, design, and impacts of border carbon adjustments (BCAs), charges on embodied carbon in imports potentially matched by rebates for embodied carbon in exports. Large disparities in carbon pricing between countries is raising concerns about competitiveness and emissions leakage, and BCAs are a potentially effective instrument for addressing such concerns. Design details are critical, however. For example, limiting coverage of the BCA to energy-intensive, trade-exposed industries facilitates administration, and initially benchmarking BCAs on domestic emissions intensities would help ease the transition for emissions-intensive trading partners. It is also important to consider how to apply BCAs across countries with different approaches to emissions mitigation. BCAs are challenging because they pose legal risks and may be at odds with the differentiated responsibilities of developing countries. Furthermore, BCAs provide only modest incentives for other large emitting countries to scale carbon pricing—an international carbon price floor would be far more effective in this regard.
Mr. Zamid Aligishiev, Mr. Giovanni Melina, and Luis-Felipe Zanna
This note is a user’s manual for the DIGNAR-19 toolkit, an application aimed at facilitating the use of the DIGNAR-19 model by economists with no to little knowledge of Matlab and Dynare via a user-friendly Excel-based interface. he toolkit comprises three tools—the simulation tool, the graphing tool, and the realism tool—that translate the contents of an Excel input file into instructions for Matlab/Dynare programs. These programs are executed behind the scenes. Outputs are saved in a separate Excel file and can also be visualized in customizable charts.
The taxation of extractive industries exploiting oil, gas, or minerals is usually treated as a sovereign, national policy and administration issue.This book offers a uniquely comprehensive overview of the theory and practice involved in designing policies on the international aspects of fiscal regimes for these industries, with a particular focus on developing and emerging economies. International Taxation and the Extractive Industries addresses key topics that are not frequently covered in the literature, such as the geo-political implications of cross-border pipelines and the legal implications of mining contracts and regional financial obligations. The contributors, all of whom are leading researchers with experience of working with governments and companies on these issues, present an authoritative collection of chapters. The volume reviews international tax rules, covering both developments in the G20-OECD project on ’Base Erosion and Profit Shifting’ and more radical proposals, identifying core challenges in the extractives sector. This book should become a core resource for both scholars and practitioners. It will also appeal to those interested in international tax issues more widely and those who study environmental economics, macroeconomics and development economics
L’administration des recettes fiscales tirées de ressources naturelles présente des difficultés particulières. Ce manuel est l’un des premiers ouvrages à s’intéresser de près à l’efficacité de l’administration des recettes issues des industries extractives. Il fournit aux décideurs politiques et aux agents des pays en développement et émergents des instructions pratiques pour mettre en place un cadre juridique, une organisation et des procédures solides pour gérer les recettes issues de ces industries. Il aborde le thème de la transparence et de sa promotion face une demande croissante des parties prenantes nationales et internationales pour plus de clarté et de responsabilité dans l’administration des recettes publiques tirées des ressources naturelles. Il approfondit également les solutions pour que les pays en développement parviennent à renforcer leurs capacités techniques et managériales pour mieux administrer ces recettes.
Los ingresos derivados de los recursos naturales suelen plantear desafíos singulares para la administración tributaria. Este Manual es uno de los primeros de su tipo que se enfoca en la administración eficaz de los ingresos provenientes de las industrias extractivas. Ofrece a las autoridades y los funcionarios en las economías en desarrollo y de mercados emergentes directrices prácticas para el establecimiento de un marco jurídico robusto, una organización y procedimientos para la gestión de los ingresos de estas industrias. Examina la transparencia y la manera de fomentarla ante las crecientes exigencias de claridad y rendición de cuentas en la administración de los ingresos públicos generados por las industrias extractivas, y analiza la forma en que los países en desarrollo pueden reforzar su capacidad gerencial y técnica para administrar estos ingresos.
This handbook is one of the first of its kind to focus attention on effectively administering revenues from extractive industries. It provides policymakers and officials in developing and emerging market economies with practical guidelines to establish a robust legal framework, organization, and procedures for administering revenue from these industries. It discusses transparency and how to promote it in the face of increasing demands for clarity and how developing countries can strengthen their managerial and technical capacity to administer these revenues.
Oil revenue plays a central role in Russia's economic development. Thus, the recent decline in oil production and investment, and the possible contribution of the current fiscal regime to these developments, have prompted a reassessment of the oil tax system in Russia. Some important changes have already been made, while others are underway. This paper uses a simulation model to evaluate Russia's current oil fiscal regime. Based on these simulations, the paper proposes ways to make the fiscal regime more supportive of investment, while ensuring an appropriate share of oil sector profits for the government.
A joint production by six international organizations, this manual explores the conceptual and theoretical issues that national statistical offices should consider in the daily compilation of export and import price indices. Intended for use by both developed and developing countries, it replaces guidance from the United Nations that is now more than a quarter-century old and thus badly outdated. The chapters cover many topics; they elaborate on the different practices currently in use, propose alternatives whenever possible, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. Given its comprehensive nature, the manual is expected to satisfy the needs of many users in addition to national statistical offices and international organizations, particularly businesses, policymakers, and researchers.