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International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
In response to a request from the authorities and as part of the Data for Decisions (D4D)1 funded project under the submodule for Fiscal and Debt reporting, a government finance statistics (GFS) technical assistance (TA) mission was held remotely with the Lesotho Ministry of Finance (MOF) during April 5–16, 2021. Previous TA missions under the Enhanced Data Dissemination Initiative (EDDI2) over the period spanning from 2016 to 2020 assisted the MOF to improve GFS compilation and dissemination for the budgetary central government (BCG) and inspired action to broaden data coverage to include local governments and extrabudgetary units (EBUs) with the aim to compile and disseminate consolidated general government GFS. Preliminary local government GFS have now been compiled, and data collected for selected state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and parastatals, including non-market SOEs that can now contribute to preliminary general government GFS to be compiled.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Abstract

Chapter 1 argues that fiscal policies are at the forefront of responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. Fiscal measures can save lives, protect the most-affected people and firms from the economic impact of the pandemic, and prevent the health crisis from turning into a deep long-lasting slump. A key priority is to fully accommodate spending on health and emergency services. Global coordination is for a universally low-cost vaccine and to support countries with limited health capacity. Large, temporary and targeted support is urgently needed for affected workers and firms until the emergency abates. As the shutdowns end, broad-based, coordinated fiscal stimulus—where financing conditions permit—will become more effective in fostering the recovery. Chapter 2 argues that fiscal policies are at the forefront of facilitating an economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic once the Great Lockdown ends. Policymakers can achieve this objective with IDEAS: Invest for the future—in health systems, infrastructure, low carbon technologies, education, and research; adopt well-planned Discretionary policies that can be deployed quickly; and Enhance Automatic Stabilizers, which are built-in budgetary tax and spending measures that automatically stabilize incomes and consumption. Importantly, improving unemployment benefit systems and social safety nets can protect household incomes from adverse shocks and strengthen resilience against future epidemics. Over the past decade, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have doubled in importance among the world’s largest corporations. They often deliver basic services such as water, electricity, and loans for families and small businesses. At their best, they can help promote higher economic growth and achieve development goals. However, many are a burden to taxpayers and the economy. Chapter 3 discusses what governments can do to get the most out of SOEs. This includes ensuring the firm’s managers have the right incentives and there is effective oversight. It also requires a high degree of transparency of their activities.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper presents 2019 Article IV Consultation with the Republic of Ethiopia and its Requests for Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility and an Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility. Ethiopia has enjoyed strong growth for over a decade, which has reduced poverty and raised living standards. However, the public investment-driven growth model has reached its limits. The authorities have announced a Homegrown Economic Reform Plan, consisting of a mix of macroeconomic, structural and sectoral policies, to address vulnerabilities and tackle structural bottlenecks inhibiting private sector activity. Over the medium term, macroeconomic and structural reforms announced by the authorities are expected to lead to a reduction in public debt, lower external vulnerabilities, and stronger growth, investment and exports. The risks to the outlook are tilted to the downside. Domestic opposition to reforms ahead of the upcoming elections could increase investor uncertainty and weigh on investment and growth. External risks stem from rising protectionism and weaker than expected global growth as well as climate-related shocks.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
After the slowdown in 2018, reflecting financial regulatory strengthening and softening external demand, growth stabilized in early 2019. Financial deleveraging and reduced interconnectedness between banks and non-banks have helped contain the build-up of financial risks, but vulnerabilities remain elevated and progress on rebalancing is mixed. While a moderate slowdown is expected in 2019, uncertainty around trade tensions remains high and risks are tilted to the downside.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2019 Article IV Consultation with People’s Republic of China highlights that after the slowdown in 2018, reflecting financial regulatory strengthening and softening external demand, growth stabilized in early 2019. Financial deleveraging and reduced interconnectedness between banks and non-banks have helped contain the build-up of financial risks, but vulnerabilities remain elevated and progress on rebalancing is mixed. While a moderate slowdown is expected in 2019, uncertainty around trade tensions remains high and risks are tilted to the downside. Successfully shifting from high-speed to high-quality growth in a highly uncertain environment requires stabilizing the economy amid rising trade tensions while continuing with deleveraging and strengthening rebalancing. It is important to improve external policies and frameworks by working constructively with trading partners to better address shortcomings and enable a trading system that can more readily adapt to economic changes in the international environment.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
This Technical Assistance Report discusses the recommendations made by the IMF mission to assist the statistical authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) with setting up a register of public sector units and further enhancing the debt data based on the framework of the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014 and European System of National and Regional Accounts. It is recommended that the three statistical institutes (BiH Agency for Statistics, Institute of Statistics, and the Institute of Statistics of the Federation of BiH) should draw up a provisional list of government controlled entities before the sectorization project starts in October 2015. The list should comprise all entities where government exercises some influence.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
This Technical Assistance Report assesses the current government finance statistics compilation environment in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), particularly the classification of institutional units and debt data compilation based on the Government Finance Statistics Manual and European System of National and Regional Accounts frameworks. It was found that a full list of public sector units in BiH does not currently exist. The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (CBBH) is in a good starting position to compile the public sector debt data. The results of its work on financial balance sheets should enable the CBBH to produce general government debt data in a relatively short term.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights Djibouti’s expansion of its transportation and utilities infrastructure to leverage its strategic location as a shipping hub and host to military bases. The authorities’ development strategy, Vision Djibouti 2035, aims to transform the country into a middle-income economy and a logistics and commercial hub for all of eastern Africa. Growth is estimated to have reached 6.5 percent in 2016, driven by major public sector projects: the railroad to Ethiopia, the construction of several new ports, and a water pipeline from Ethiopia. Inflation rose to 3 percent on average in 2016, reflecting increased food and service prices.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that after six years of persistent recession, Croatia’s economy is showing first signs of recovery. Robust retail sales and value-added tax receipts suggest that private consumption has bottomed out. Employment has stabilized and corporate profits are recovering. Tailwinds from a favorable external environment have helped, notably lower energy prices, stronger euro area growth, and ample domestic and external liquidity that contain debt servicing costs. For 2015, the economy is projected to grow by 0.5 percent. Net exports are expected to make a modest positive contribution to growth.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is highly dependent on external aid. Following a recession in FY2006–08, the FSM economy has grown by 2–2½ percent for FY2010 and FY2011. The economy remains dependent on the large public sector, although the fisheries and agriculture sectors have shown signs of growth. Despite some deterioration in current account balance, external balance also has sustained a stable flow of official transfers. However, economic growth is likely to slow in the near term owing to a decline in public sector demand.