Business and Economics > Investments: Bonds

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International Monetary Fund
Rules and Regulations for the Investment Account, which were adopted on January 23, 2013, and amended thereafter, were further amended on January 12, 2022, by the Executive Board of the IMF.
Mr. Fei Han and Mindaugas Leika
The paper presents a framework to integrate liquidity and solvency stress tests. An empirical study based on European bond trading data finds that asset sales haircuts depend on the total amount of assets sold and general liquidity conditions in the market. To account for variations in market liquidity, the study uses Markov regime-switching models and links haircuts with market volatility and the amount of securities sold by banks. The framework is accompanied by a Matlab program and an Excel-based tool, which allow the calculations to be replicated for any type of traded security and to be used for liquidity and solvency stress testing.
International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.
Rules and Regulations for the Investment Account, which were adopted on January 23, 2013 and amended thereafter, were further amended on May 13, 2019 by the Executive Board of the IMF.
International Monetary Fund
The objective of the Investment Account (IA) is to provide a vehicle for the investment of a part of the Fund’s assets so as to generate income that may be used to meet the expenses of conducting the business of the Fund. Achieving this objective would help diversify the sources and increase the level of the Fund’s income, thereby strengthening its finances over time.
International Monetary Fund
On March 22, 2017, the Executive Board adopted the Guidelines for Investing PRG, PRG-HIPC, and CCR Trust Assets (the “Guidelines”) to establish the investment objectives and policies to guide the investment of assets of the PRG, PRG-HIPC, and CCR Trusts (the“Trusts”) which are available for investment under the Trusts’ instruments. These Guidelines are included in this document.
Stephen Cecchetti, Mr. Tommaso Mancini Griffoli, and Mr. Machiko Narita
Using firm-level data for approximately 1,000 bank and nonbank financial institutions in 22 countries over the past 15 years we study the impact of prolonged monetary policy easing on risk-taking behavior. We find that the leverage ratio, as well as other measures of firm-level vulnerability, increases for banks and nonbanks as domestic monetary policy easing persists. Cross-border effects are also notable. We find effects of roughly similar magnitude on foreign financial sector firms when the U.S. eases policy. Results appear robust to a variety of specifications, and to be non-linear, with risk-taking behavior rising most quickly at the onset of monetary policy easing.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations made in the Financial Sector Assessment Program for Ireland in the areas of asset management and financial stability. Most of the potential avenues for domestic financial instability from Irish-domiciled money market funds and investment funds appear to be contained. The potential for destabilizing spillovers from Irish-domiciled money market and investment funds to the domestic economy appears limited. The Central Bank of Ireland has made important progress in addressing long-standing data gaps as they pertain to the asset management industry. A number of initiatives could be helpful in further strengthening industry oversight.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper studies the two vital issues of Luxembourg’s economy: investment IMF-World Bank linkages and lessons and challenges in accommodating migrants and refugees. The Luxembourg investment fund industry, second in the world after the United States, has grown rapidly since the global financial crisis. Risks in investment funds are attracting global attention, and the linkages between Luxembourg funds and banks could contribute to transmitting financial volatility to the financial system and the real economy. Past experience of handling migration flows and a positive public attitude have helped the authorities to mobilize resources for accommodating sharply rising refugee inflows from mid-2015.
Ms. Luisa Zanforlin and Nobuyuki Kanazawa
We study the link between the probability of default implied by Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads and the final prices of the defaulted bonds as established at the CDS settlement auctions. We observe that the post-default recovery rates at the observed spreads imply markets were often “surprised” by the credit event. We find that the prices of the bonds that are deliverable at the auctions imply probabilities of default that are systematically different than the default probabilities estimated prior to the event of default using standard methodologies. We discuss the implications for CDS pricing models. We analyze the discrepancy between the actual and theoretical CDS spreads and we find it is significantly associated both to the CDS market microstructure at the time of the settlement auction and to the general macroeconomic background. We discuss the potential for strategic bidding behavior at the CDS settlement auctions.
Michael B. Devereux and Mr. Alan Sutherland
This paper presents a general approximation method for characterizing time-varying equilibrium portfolios in a two-country dynamic general equilibrium model. the method can be easily adapted to most dynamic general equilibrium models, it applies to environments in which markets are complete or incomplete, and it can be used for models of any dimension. Moreover, the approximation provides simple, easily interpretable closed form solutions for the dynamics of equilibrium portfolios.