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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
The Executive Board approved a 12-month Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) on June 26, 2020, to support the Egyptian authorities’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The SBA, at 184.8 percent of quota, was part of a two-step support strategy that was preceded by a purchase under the Rapid Financing Instrument on May 11, 2020, at 100 percent of quota. Both reviews of the SBA were concluded on time and all program conditionality was met. The arrangement expired on June 25, 2021.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The new Dirham Monetary Framework developed by the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates (CBUAE) operationalizes a floor system and provides a complete set of instruments to manage liquidity under a fixed exchange rate arrangement and capital mobility. This technical assistance report presents an overview of this operational framework and a set of recommendations to streamline and further improve it especially with regards to: (i) the discontinuation of the FX swap facility; (ii) the issuance of central bank bills; (iii) the design of fine-tuning operations; and (iv) the design and calibration of the reserves requirements. Moreover, the report provides a complete liquidity forecasting infrastructure, using cutting-edge statistical methods, to project the changes in the supply of banks reserves through the forecast of the three main autonomous factors. It also offers a statistical approach to estimate the optimal liquidity surplus and calibrate the operational mix between the different liquidity absorptions instruments. At last, the report investigates the functioning and structure of the UAE money markets.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU) is implementing transparency practices that are broadly aligned with the good practices for central banks (Table 1). The institution’s comprehensive communication tools and strategy underpin the commitment to transparency and its accountability for the price stability and financial system soundness mandates. In addition, the adoption of transparency among its value statements supports its mission “to contribute to the wellbeing of the society.” The BCU management wants to make further improvements in the transparency practices and envisions that by relying on its strong legal and institutional arrangements this can be achieved. Ultimately, the BCU intends to be recognized as an “independent, effective, and reliable institution with the capability to anticipate and respond to new challenges.”
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
After a deeper pandemic-induced recession than the rest of the euro area in 2020, the Portuguese economy gained ground in 2021, and growth strengthened further in 2022:Q1. Employment reached pre-pandemic levels in 2021:H2 and GDP in 2022:Q1. Nonetheless output is expected to remain below pre-pandemic trend over the medium term. While growth in 2022:Q1 was supported by a strong bounce back in tourism and domestic demand, the recovery for the rest of the year is expected to be hampered by the war in Ukraine despite limited direct linkages with Russia and Ukraine, due to higher commodity prices, supply-side disruptions, and weaker confidence and external demand. The outlook is clouded by uncertainty relating to the war, new virus waves, and the ultimate effect of the pandemic on corporate, bank, and public sector balance sheets. While declining and with improved composition, public debt would remain high.