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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
In the past two years, the NBG has adopted a series of measures to strengthen nonbank sector financial regulation, supervision, and oversight.1 The MCM TA mission in 2017 provided recommendations along these lines, most of which have been implemented by the NBG. Currently, the nonbank sector consists of Micro Financial Institutions (MFIs) and Loan Issuing Entities (LIEs). In reforming the sector, the NBG has, among others: (i) amended laws and issued new and revised regulations on registration, capital, and liquidity requirements for MFIs; (ii) significantly expanded supervisory powers and authorities and increased supervisory resources for the nonbank sector; (iii) registered 200 LIEs; and (iv) put in place consumer protection and responsibility lending rules. These new measures have helped to enhance the resilience of the nonbank sector, weed out those that are non-viable, and improved the reputation of the MFI brand.
International Monetary Fund
A detailed assessment of Israel’s compliance with the Basel Core Principles for effective banking supervision is presented. The Bachar reform that has been started in mid-2005 forced banks to divest most noncommercial banking activities, such as mutual funds, insurance, pension, and provident funds; the banks today focus on traditional banking business. As a result, the nonbank financial sector has grown rapidly, playing a larger role in credit markets. Financial supervision responsibilities in Israel are shared among several agencies. The Bank of Israel and specifically its Banking Supervision Department supervises banks.
Elöd Takáts and Ms. Patrizia Tumbarello
This paper focuses on how the exposure to the corporate sector may impact the health of the Australian banking system. It also compares Australian banks with their international peers. Finally, it investigates banks' exposure to credit risk using the new Basel II Pillar 3 disclosure data. The analysis shows that Australian banks have remained very sound by international standards, despite the global financial turmoil. While the international downturn points to several vulnerabilities, the risks from the corporate and household sectors appear to be manageable.
International Monetary Fund
This paper analyzes likely effectiveness of the fiscal policy in supporting aggregate demand in Australia. The simulation analysis illustrates that the type of fiscal measure and the underlying behavioral responses have an important impact on the magnitude of fiscal multipliers. The Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal Model simulations also suggest that the cumulative impact after five years could be close to 10 percentage points of GDP for the announced stimulus measures that cumulate to almost 8 percentage points of GDP.
Rocco Huang and Mr. Lev Ratnovski
This paper explores factors behind Canadian banks' relative resilience in the ongoing credit turmoil. We identify two main causes: a higher share of depository funding (vs. wholesale funding) in liabilities, and a number of regulatory and structural factors in the Canadian market that reduced banks' incentives to take excessive risks. The robust predictive power of the depository funding ratio is confirmed in a multivariate analysis of the performance of 72 largest commercial banks in OECD countries during the turmoil.
International Monetary Fund
The Detailed Assessment of Antigua and Barbuda’s compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision is presented. The largest bank represents 61 percent of the sector’s aggregated assets, highlighting an important degree of concentration. Investment portfolios represent the bulk of banks’ assets, and are predominantly composed of government and corporate bonds and equities. Loan portfolios include a number of large exposures, some exceeding 25 percent of capital, and/or connected party loans.
Ajit Singh, Mr. Rudolph Matthias, and Mr. Jack D. Glen
This large empirical study of corporate profitability in emerging markets during the 1980s and 1990s measures the intensity of competition. Data on corporate rates of return, profit margins, and output-capital ratios reveal that the recent liberalization has been associated with reduced corporate profit margins and improved capital utilization efficiency. The paper also analyzes persistency in corporate profitability and finds that competitiveness was no less intense in developing countries than in advanced countries. Although the paper is not directly concerned with the Asian crisis, it provides evidence on important structural hypotheses about the crisis.