Business and Economics > Investments: Metals

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Mr. Yongzhen Yu
Major mining commodity prices are inherently volatile and cyclical. High levels of investment in China have been a key driver in the strong world demand for minerals and metals over the past decade. The urbanization and industrialization of China has been an important factor behind the increase in domestic demand and high investment growth, while its export sector is also an important source of growth and plays a critical role as a catalyst. Activity in infrastructure, construction, real estate, and automobile manufacturing all contribute to the strong demand for minerals. Over the next five years, the Chinese demand is expected to remain strong, supported by investment and gradually rising consumption rates. However, in the second part of this decade economic growth in China could slow down. For Latin American countries, export receipts should remain strong over the next five years and beyond, given the continued strong demand from China.
International Monetary Fund
Gold mining represents an engine of growth for the Malian economy. A description of the techniques and importance of artisanal gold mining in Mali, the key developments of the industrial mining era, and potential gold mining developments are discussed in the paper. The Malian mining policy and regulations, the impact of industrial gold mining on the Malian economy, public finances, and employment are discussed. The statistical data on the economic indices of Mali are also presented in the paper.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The financial structure and operations of the IMF are described in this pamphlet, as well as the sources of IMF financing, the policies associated with the use of IMF resources, and the role of the IMF as trustee to various accounts that are administered by it.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper discusses the history of the first 20 years of the IMF. It attempts to recount objectively what were its origins and what have been its plans and activities. The paper contains a chronological account of the evolution of the IMF from the original plans formulated in 1941 to the end of 1965, with a supplementary chapter summarizing subsequent events. It analyzes the IMF’s policies in three major fields and reviews its constitutional development.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper comprises documents relating to the history of the IMF, including some that preceded the drafting of the Articles of Agreement. The paper highlights that the first draft of Lord Keynes’ plan for a Clearing Union was circulated within the British Treasury on September 8, 1941. A fourth draft was given to Ministers on February 11, 1942. The first definitive version of Mr. White’s plan for a stabilization fund was a mimeographed draft dated April 1942. This covered both the IMF and the World Bank.

Mr. M. G O'Callaghan

Abstract

This paper describes the structure of the world gold market, its sources of supply and demand, and how it functions. The paper examines the composition and origin of physical stocks of gold, their flows, and their market destination and also reviews the operation of bullion and paper gold markets.

Mr. Joshua E. Greene and Mr. Peter Isard

Abstract

This paper examines the problems in establishing currency convertibility- and the optimal timing- in formerly planned economies making the transition to market-oriented systems.

International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Abstract

This paper presents the Supplement on international reserves, the sixth in the series of supplements to International Financial Statistics (IFS) that comprises textual material commencing with an historical perspective of international reserves. This is followed by a discussion on the methodology covering the concepts underlying the reserves data in IFS: the data collection and presentation procedures; the related data in the money and banking, and balance-of-payments sections in IFS; and a summary of the national concepts of reserves. Statistics on international reserves are important indicators of the external economic performance of countries. A country's holdings of international reserves represent its ability to meet balance of payments needs through official financial settlements. The establishment of the IMF led to the creation of a reserve asset in the form of a gold tranche position reflecting a member's subscription to the IMF in gold. To the extent that the IMF made use of a member's currency in drawings of other countries, a creation of new reserves was involved.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper reviews key findings of the IMF’s Annual Report for the fiscal year ended April 30, 1980. The report highlights that during the period from the beginning of 1979 to the middle of 1980, the world economic situation was marked by three disturbing features. Rates of inflation in most countries remained high and, indeed, accelerated. Growth of real output in the industrial countries began to slow down markedly, threatening to halt the expansion of world trade. Large surpluses and deficits reemerged in the external balances on current account for major groups of countries.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper discusses the appointment of Jacques de Larosière as Managing Director in the IMF. He assumed his duties at the IMF on June 17, 1978, succeeding Mr. H. Johannes Witteveen, of the Netherlands, whose service ended on June 16, 1978. Mr. de Larosière, 48, was Director of the French Treasury since 1974. He represented his government at many international conferences as well as on the boards of major industrial and financial concerns. Mr. de Larosière also participated in the work of the Committee of Twenty on International Monetary Reform and the Interim Committee.