Business and Economics > Investments: Energy

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Ms. Anja Baum, Clay Hackney, Mr. Paulo A Medas, and Mouhamadou Sy
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are present in key sectors of the economies around the world. While they can provide an important public service, there is widespread concern that their activities are negatively affected by corruption. However, there is limited cross-country analysis on the costs of corruption for SOEs. We present new evidence on how corruption affects the performance of SOEs using firm level data across a large number of countries. One striking result is that SOEs perform as well as private firms in core sectors when corruption is low. Taking advantage of a novel database reforms, we also show that SOE governance reforms can generate significant performance gains.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that Norway is in the midst of a healthy recovery from the oil downturn, supported by positive trends in oil prices and a strengthening labor market. In addition, banks remain profitable and well capitalized. However, household debt continues to increase and house prices have resumed their rise, especially in the Oslo area, after a correction during 2017. Mainland growth is projected to increase from 2 percent in 2017 to 2.5 percent in each 2018 and 2019, underpinned by solid consumption, stronger business investment and an export recovery. Petroleum investment will also pick up. As a result, output will likely start to exceed potential in 2019.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper examines infrastructure needs in Cameroon and makes policy recommendations to address them. In doing this, it provides advice to strengthen the public investment management framework, including public–private partnerships (PPP). The paper reviews the recent experience with public investment and PPPs and discusses policy options: increasing spending on public investment through traditional public procurement, while preserving fiscal sustainability; increasing the efficiency of public investment institutional processes; and increasing reliance on private-sector participation in infrastructure, while properly addressing their associated fiscal risks. Infrastructure indicators in Cameroon trail those of regional peers. Despite a slight improvement in the overall quality of infrastructure in 2013, infrastructure indicators remain low when compared to other sub-Saharan African countries, especially for roads, air transport, and electricity. A large body of theoretical and empirical work finds a positive relationship between public investment and growth. Physical and social infrastructure is widely considered to be a critical input for economic growth, productivity, and welfare.
International Monetary Fund
This paper is an overview of Nicaragua’s performance in the year 2011. The year 2012 is expected to face a recession and a moderation in the global oil prices. The tax revenue collections will be sturdy. The poverty scale will not face any oscillation. The rigid development in the business line, sustaining the electricity sector financially, and low dependence of oil imports are the anticipated preventive measures to overcome these challenges. The Board has taken these ideas as the positive outcome of a strong rule.
International Monetary Fund
The Nicaraguan economy continued to post robust growth in the first half of 2011. The Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and Financing Assurances Review highlights that all quantitative performance criteria for end-June 2011 were met and the structural agenda is broadly on track. The fiscal performance of the central government was stronger than envisaged. The deficit in the external current account is projected to remain large and to be financed by resilient capital flows.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Abstract

Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia underlines that the region has continued to experience strong growth in 2008, and the short-term outlook is generally favorable. However, inflation has emerged as a key issue, and while the global credit crunch has thus far had a limited impact on regional financial markets, the financial turmoil and slowdown in developed economies could lower growth in the period ahead. Policies will need to focus on tightening the fiscal and monetary stance where appropriate, with greater exchange rate flexibility, and continuing efforts to strengthen the resilience of financial sectors.

International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the potential impact of oil on economic growth and policy for Cambodia. It shows that a hypothetical moderately sized oil sector would have a significant, but not overwhelming, impact on macroeconomic prospects; but reaping the benefits while avoiding economic problems would depend, in particular, on sound fiscal policies. The paper looks at the role of wage and employment policies within the broader civil service reform agenda. It also analyzes wage bill developments since the 1990s and proposes steps to accelerate pay and civil service reforms.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper aims at discussing the impact of the oil windfall on Chad, with a focus on growth, poverty, competitiveness, and fiscal policy challenges posed by the oil revenue outlook. The paper discusses the reforms needed to remove structural factors that constraints the non-oil sector growth, in particular on civil and military services and the microfinance sector. The paper argues that Chad’s current growth potential is seriously limited by low levels of both human and physical capitals and by weak institutions and governance.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.