This handbook is aimed at anyone who is involved in a Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) or who has a practical interest in public investment management. It is intended to be useful for country authorities, IMF staff, staff of other financial institutions and development organizations, and anyone who is interested in exploring different aspects of public investment management to understand how country systems are designed and how they work in practice.
At the request of the Ministry of the Economy and Finance (Ministère de l’Économie et des Finances (MEF)) and in consultation with the African Department (AFR) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the IMF Statistics Department (STA) carried out a remote mission on government finance statistics (GFS) from November 29–December 10, 2021. The purpose of the mission was to continue to support the Malagasy authorities in their work to adopt international standards of the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014 (GFSM 2014) for their GFS. The mission would like to thank the Research Directorate (Direction des Études (DE)) of the Directorate General of the Treasury (Direction Générale du Trésor (DGT)) for its close collaboration and more specifically for the timely communication of the required documents, which was essential to the success of the mission given the remote working conditions.
Electoral rules determine how voters' preferences are aggregated and translated into political representation, and their design can lead to the election of representatives who represent broader or narrower constituencies. Relying on a regression discontinuity design, I contrast single- and two-round elections in Brazilian municipal races. Two-round elections use two rounds of voting to elect a winner, ensuring that the eventual winner obtains at least 50% of the vote. Theoretically, this can provide incentives for candidates to secure a broader base of support. Consistent with this, I show that in two-round elections, candidates represent a more geographically diverse group of voters, public schools have more resources, and there is less variation in resources across public schools. Effects appear to be driven by strategic responses of candidates, rather than differential entry into races. These results suggest that two-round elections can lead candidates to secure broader bases of support and to distribute public goods more broadly.
Sierra Leone has made significant strides to rebuild its public infrastructure after the devastating civil war, but the desperate infrastructure needs remain. At the end of the conflict in 2002, the country was left with virtually no infrastructure. Redevelopment of public infrastructure was ignited by the mining boom, which started in the late 2000s. Over the period 2008−18, public investment averaged 6.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), which has translated into an estimated capital stock of about 65 percent in constant 2011 GDP. However, a level of public investment is still lower than neighboring countries by about one percentage point. The level of capital stock per capita is one of the lowest in the region, only slightly above that of Liberia. Some districts still have no paved roads, no electricity, and no water systems, almost 20 years after the war.
Olivier Bizimana, Laura Jaramillo, and Mr. Saji Thomas
South Asia needs large infrastructure investments to achieve its development goals, and public investment can also support the Covid-19 recovery. Regression estimates that account for the quantity and quality of investment suggest that public infrastructure was a key driver of productivity growth in South Asia. Going forward, higher public infrastructure spending can raise growth, but its benefits depend on how it is financed and managed. Model simulations show that tax financing, concessional lending, or private sector financing through public private partnerships (PPPs) are more advantageous than government borrowing through financial markets because they support growth while containing the impact on public debt. However, the optimal choice also depends on available fiscal space, taxation capacity, implementation risks, and public investment efficiency. To reap the most benefits from higher infrastructure investment, South Asian countries need to manage fiscal risks carefully, including from PPPs and state-owned enterprises, and improve public investment efficiency.
Drawing on the Fund’s analytical and capacity development work, including Public Investment Management Assessments (PIMAs) carried out in more than 60 countries, the new book Well Spent: How Strong Infrastructure Governance Can End Waste in Public Investment will address how countries can attain quality infrastructure outcomes through better infrastructure governance—an issue becoming increasingly important in the context of the Great Lockdown and its economic consequences. It covers critical issues such as infrastructure investment and Sustainable Development Goals, controlling corruption, managing fiscal risks, integrating planning and budgeting, and identifying best practices in project appraisal and selection. It also covers emerging areas in infrastructure governance, such as maintaining and managing public infrastructure assets and building resilience against climate change.
This Technical Assistance report on Mexico discusses public investment management assessment (PIMA). It evaluates 15 key institutions in terms of their institutional strength and effectiveness across the planning, allocation, and implementation phases of the PIM cycle, identifies strengths and weaknesses in the existing PIM framework, and produces an action plan to improve PIM. This assessment found that most of Mexico’s institutions scored as medium strength in terms of institutional design and effectiveness. It is recommended to include a medium-term target for the public sector borrowing requirement, introduce an independent body to review and assess the quality of the macro-fiscal projections, and amend the fiscal rule’s escape clause so it is only used in exceptional circumstances. In addition, expand the economic assumptions report to include more information on fiscal strategy and analyses of medium-term fiscal parameters. It is also recommended to develop mechanisms for coordination of public investment plans at federal and subnational levels to enhance efficiency and synergies of planning and investment prioritization.
This Technical Assistance paper assesses Slovak Republic’s public investment management framework using the IMF’s Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) methodology and advises the authorities on options to strengthen further the management of public investment. State-owned enterprises are major investors in infrastructure but are subject to little central oversight of their operational or financial performance. The report makes seven recommendations aimed at strengthening PIM institutions and reducing the identified efficiency gap. These recommendations focus on key bottlenecks and challenges in the investment process. Issues that warrant the authorities’ primary attention include introducing a strategic planning framework for public investment; developing a fully-operational pipeline of major projects, based on clear and robust selection criteria; and improving the credibility of the annual budget and medium-term budget ceilings. It also recommends establishing a national strategy and norms for routine and capital maintenance budgeting that will enhance the quality of strategic existing infrastructure.