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Mr. Hamid R Davoodi, Paul Elger, Alexandra Fotiou, Mr. Daniel Garcia-Macia, Xuehui Han, Andresa Lagerborg, Mr. Waikei R Lam, and Mr. Paulo A Medas
Adoption of fiscal rules and fiscal councils continued to increase globally over the last decades based on two new global datasets. During the pandemic, fiscal frameworks were put to test. The widespread use of escape clauses was one of the novelties in this crisis, which helped provide policy room to respond to the health crisis. But the unprecedented fiscal actions have led to large and widespread deviations from deficit and debt limits. The evidence shows that fiscal rules, in general, have been flexible during crises but have not prevented a large and persistent buildup of debt over time. Experience shows that deviations from debt limits are very difficult to reverse. The paper also presents evidence on the benefits of a good track record in abiding by the rules. All these highlight the difficult policy choices ahead and need to further improve rules-based fiscal frameworks.
Patrick Blagrave and Mr. Fabien Gonguet
Current fiscal transparency and reporting practices in India place it behind most peer G20 economies, implying that policy makers are lacking critical data to ground their fiscal and other economic planning decisions. The increasing use of off-budget financing at the central government level in recent years represents one key example of reduced transparency—we provide estimates of the public sector borrowing requirement and an extended notion of the fiscal deficit, each of which shows a more expansionary stance in recent years than ‘headline’ deficit figures presented in budget documents. We then investigate the current state of fiscal reporting practices in India and suggest areas for reforms—these include enhanced IT systems, stronger central-local coordination, and a gradual transition to accrual accounting.
Ms. Elva Bova, Marta Ruiz-Arranz, Mr. Frederik G Toscani, and H. Elif Ture
We construct the first comprehensive dataset of contingent liability realizations in advanced and emerging markets for the period 1990–2014. We find that contingent liability realizations are a major source of fiscal distress. The average fiscal cost of a contingent liability realization is 6 percent of GDP but costs can be as high as 40 percent for major financial sector bailouts. Contingent liability realizations are correlated among each other and tend to occur during periods of growth reversals and crises, accentuating pressure on the budget during already difficult times. Countries with stronger institutions are able to better control and address the underlying risks so that they are less exposed to contingent liability realizations.

Abstract

La eficiencia, la eficacia y la transparencia de la gestión financiera pública en América Latina son fundamentales para la supervisión de los recursos públicos, la estabilidad fiscal y el desarrollo económico sostenible. En años recientes, los países de América Latina han adoptado reformas en la gestión financiera pública y han logrado muchos avances importantes; sin embargo, todavía existen retos. Este libro reúne el conocimiento y las experiencias del personal técnico del FMI y el BID y de representantes de 16 Gobiernos de la región para documentar estas reformas, y examina las experiencias y las lecciones aprendidas. Es un recurso valioso para quienes se ocupan de estos temas en la gestión financiera pública.

Abstract

In recent years, the countries of Latin America have embraced reforms in public financial management and have made many important advances—however, many challenges remain. This book brings together IMF and IDB staff and representatives from 16 governments in the region to document these reforms, and to examine the experiences and lessons learned. It is a valuable resource for those looking at issues in public financial management.

Oya Celasun, Mr. Francesco Grigoli, Ms. Keiko Honjo, Mr. Javier Kapsoli, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, Mr. Bogdan Lissovolik, Jan Luksic, Ms. Marialuz Moreno Badia, Ms. Joana Pereira, Mr. Marcos Poplawski Ribeiro, Baoping Shang, and Ms. Yulia Ustyugova
Latin America’s bold fiscal policy reaction to the global financial crisis was hailed as a sign that the region had finally overcome its procyclical fiscal past. However, most countries of the region have not yet rebuilt their fiscal space, despite buoyant commodity revenues and relatively strong growth in the aftermath of the crisis. Using the experience of Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay, this paper examines the lessons and legacies of the crisis by addressing the following questions, among others: How much did the 2009 fiscal stimulus help growth? What shortcomings were revealed in the fiscal policy frameworks? What institutional reforms are now needed to provide enduring anchors for fiscal policy? How much rebuilding of buffers is needed going forward?
Oya Celasun, Mr. Francesco Grigoli, Ms. Keiko Honjo, Mr. Javier Kapsoli, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, Mr. Bogdan Lissovolik, Jan Luksic, Ms. Marialuz Moreno Badia, Ms. Joana Pereira, Mr. Marcos Poplawski Ribeiro, Baoping Shang, and Ms. Yulia Ustyugova
La reacción audaz que tuvo la política fiscal de América Latina ante la crisis financiera mundial fue tomada como una señal de que la región finalmente había superado su pasado fiscal pro-cíclico. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los países de la región aún no han reconstruido su espacio fiscal, a pesar de los abundantes ingresos públicos provenientes de las materias primas y el crecimiento relativamente estable tras la crisis. A partir de la experiencia de Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México, Perú y Uruguay, este documento analiza las lecciones y legados de la crisis abordando las siguientes preguntas, entre otras: ¿Cuánto contribuyó el estímulo fiscal de 2009 al crecimiento? ¿Qué deficiencias se identificaron en los marcos de política fiscal? ¿Qué reformas institucionales se necesitan ahora para aportar anclas persistentes para la política fiscal? ¿En qué medida se necesita reconstruir las protecciones de cara al futuro?
Ms. Suzanne Flynn and Mario Pessoa
L'accumulation d’arriérés de dépenses publiques est l'un des problèmes les plus courants de la gestion des finances publiques (GFP). Cette note technique définit les arriérés de dépenses et leur typologie. Elle expose l'impact économique de l'accumulation d'arriérés de dépenses chroniques. Elle aborde les causes profondes des arriérés de dépenses et les mécanismes de prévention et de contrôle des arriérés de dépenses. Elle présente enfin des stratégies de gestion et de régularisation des arriérés de dépenses.
Ms. Suzanne Flynn and Mario Pessoa
La acumulación de atrasos en el pago de los gastos públicos es uno de los problemas más comunes de la gestión financiera pública (GFP). En esta nota técnica se definen los atrasos del gasto y los diferentes tipos de atrasos que surgen. Se destaca el impacto económico de la acumulación crónica de atrasos del gasto. Se analizan las causas subyacentes y los mecanismos para evitar y controlar nuevas acumulaciones de atrasos. Por último, se presentan algunas estrategias para gestionar y regularizar los atrasos.
Ms. Suzanne Flynn and Mario Pessoa
The accumulation of government expenditure arrears is one of the most common problems in public financial management. This technical note defines expenditure arrears and the different types of arrears that arise. The economic impact of chronic expenditure arrears accumulation is highlighted. The note discusses the underlying causes and mechanisms for preventing and controlling the further accumulation of arrears. The note concludes with some strategies for managing and clearing arrears.