Asia and Pacific > Bangladesh

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Ruchir Agarwal, Vybhavi Balasundharam, Patrick Blagrave, Mr. Eugenio M Cerutti, Ragnar Gudmundsson, and Racha Mousa
The South Asia region is both a large contributor to climate change and also one of the regions most vulnerable to climate change. This paper provides an overview of the region’s vulnerabilities, national committments to mitigate emissions, and national policies to adapt to a changing climate. The paper also discusses policy measures that may be needed to make further progress on both mitigation and adapatation. Our analysis suggests that while substantial progress is being made, there remains scope to adopt a more cohesive strategy to achieve the region’s goals—including by improving the monitoring and tracking of adaptation spending, and by laying the groundwork to equitably increase the effective price of carbon while protecting low-income and vulnerable households in the region.
Mr. Fabien Gonguet, Mr. Claude P Wendling, Ozlem Aydin Sakrak, and Bryn Battersby
Public financial management (PFM) consists of all the government’s institutional arrangements in place to facilitate the implementation of fiscal policies. In response to the growing urgency to fight climate change, “green PFM” aims at adapting existing PFM practices to support climate-sensitive policies. With the cross-cutting nature of climate change and wider environmental concerns, green PFM can be a key enabler of an integrated government strategy to combat climate change. This note outlines a framework for green PFM, emphasizing the need for an approach combining various entry points within, across, and beyond the budget cycle. This includes components such as fiscal transparency and external oversight, and coordination with state-owned enterprises and subnational governments. The note also identifies principles for effective implementation of a green PFM strategy, among which the need for a strong stewardship located within the ministry of finance is paramount.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper summarizes achievements of the authorities to date and describes several options to support their ongoing efforts. The economic impact of climate change on Bangladesh is likely to become more pronounced. The outlook for Bangladesh is a source of concern, with experts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicting that a rise in sea levels and coastal erosion could lead to a loss of 17 percent of land surface and 30 percent of food production by 2050. Responding effectively to the impact of climate change depends on designing an appropriate set of fiscal policies. These can play a key role in mobilizing both public and private sources of finance for mitigation and adaptation activities. A second priority for Bangladesh is to raise domestic revenue from its current low base, including through introduction of a carbon tax. By helping establish a predictable price for carbon emissions, carbon taxes also provide clear incentives to promote investments in emissions-saving technologies. Although opponents argue that such taxes harm economic activity and slow job creation, the revenue they generate may over time be used to reduce other distorting taxes on labor and capital.
Stefan Mittnik, Willi Semmler, and Alexander Haider
Recent research in financial economics has shown that rare large disasters have the potential to disrupt financial sectors via the destruction of capital stocks and jumps in risk premia. These disruptions often entail negative feedback e?ects on the macroecon-omy. Research on disaster risks has also actively been pursued in the macroeconomic models of climate change. Our paper uses insights from the former work to study disaster risks in the macroeconomics of climate change and to spell out policy needs. Empirically the link between carbon dioxide emission and the frequency of climate re-lated disaster is investigated using cross-sectional and panel data. The modeling part then uses a multi-phase dynamic macro model to explore this causal nexus and the e?ects of rare large disasters resulting in capital losses and rising risk premia. Our proposed multi-phase dynamic model, incorporating climate-related disaster shocks and their aftermath as one phase, is suitable for studying mitigation and adaptation policies.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This paper discusses three main issues: bank lending rates, impact of climate change on the economy of Bangladesh, and financial inclusion in Bangladesh. According to international standards, average bank lending rates and interest rate spreads in Bangladesh are not high. Various prudent policies have been implemented to bring interest rates down further. Bangladesh is considered among the top countries in the world for vulnerability to climate change, because of its geographical location and topography. The Bangladesh government has taken a number of initiatives to expand financial inclusion in the country. Financial inclusion helps increase the incomes of financially marginalized members of a society.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
The Sixth Five Year Plan, as outlined in Bangladesh's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, targets strategic growth and employment. The medium-term macroeconomic framework plan entails the involvement of both the private and public sectors. Human resources development strategy programs reaching out to the poor and the vulnerable population, as well as environment, climate change, and disaster risk management, have been included in the plan. Managing regional disparities for shared growth and strategy for raising farm productivity and agricultural growth have been outlined. Diversifying exports and developing a dynamic manufacturing sector are all inclusive in the proposed plan.