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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This report reviews the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime in the Maldives and identifies policy and legal reform options to support its modernization, as well as enhancing efficiency, equity, and revenue mobilization. Despite five existing amendments to the Goods and Services Tax Act (GSTA) and 28 amendments to the associated regulations, the core parameters of the GST have barely changed in nearly 12 years. In addition, rapid changes to global business models and the increasing digitalization of the Maldivian economy have made key features of the legislation – such as place of supply rules – increasingly inadequate. The mission identified several key GST policy reforms and proposed legal redrafting recommendations that should be prioritized by the authorities in the upcoming reform window. Table 1 summarizes the potential revenue implications and implementation timeline of the main policy measures proposed.
Mr. John Kiff, Alessandro Gullo, Mr. Cory Hillier, and Panagiotis Papapanagiotou
Back in 2009, G-20 leaders have called for all standardized over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives to be cleared through central counterparties (CCPs). By now, 18 of the 24 Financial Stability Board (FSB) member jurisdictions have provided for mandatory central clearing frameworks in place, covering at least 90 percent of all standardized OTC derivatives in their jurisdictions. However, the authorities in several countries remain confronted with the hows and wherefores of mandatory central clearing, also in light of the international dimension of OTC derivatives contracts. This paper examines the policy options available to countries that have yet to fully conform to the clearing mandate, centered on the setup of local CCPs or on the use of foreign CCPs, and elaborates on their feasibility, risks and benefits from an economic, legal and tax viewpoint.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
In response to a request from Mr. Ignacio Briones Rojas, Minister of Finance of Chile, a remote mission was conducted by a joint team of staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the secretariat of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) during April – October 2020. The mission’s main purpose was to assist the Minister of Finance with technical support to review Chile’s tax expenditure methodology and its corrective excise taxes. The present report reflects the findings of the mission. This report was written jointly by the IMF and the OECD, with the IMF team leading the work assessing tax expenditures in the corporate income tax (CIT) and the analysis of excises, and the OECD team leading the work assessing tax expenditures in the personal income tax (PIT) and value added tax (VAT). A presentation of the main findings was given to the Minister of Finance on October 6, 2020. The report incorporates comments provided by the Ministry and the Chilean Revenue Administration.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper evaluates Australia’s experience with its principles-based fiscal framework. A key contribution of the paper is an evaluation of whether the medium-term budget balance anchor remains suitable in the post-Global Financial Crisis (GFC) economic environment. This paper analyzes the medium-term fiscal strategy (MTFS) in the context of the principles underlying the fiscal framework and offers suggestions for reinforcement. Comparing the alternative and current fiscal policy toolkits under a downside scenario demonstrates possible improvements to fiscal outcomes. The evaluation outlines that the operational principles of the MTFS have been consistent with the broad principles for sound fiscal policy laid out in the Charter, although implementation has involved difficult trade-offs. Options to deal with the treatment of debt, its accountability framework and its fiscal policy toolkit should help strengthen the statement and implementation of Australia’s fiscal strategy and reinforce its fiscal framework in the current and prospective economic environment.

Abstract

The taxation of extractive industries exploiting oil, gas, or minerals is usually treated as a sovereign, national policy and administration issue.This book offers a uniquely comprehensive overview of the theory and practice involved in designing policies on the international aspects of fiscal regimes for these industries, with a particular focus on developing and emerging economies. International Taxation and the Extractive Industries addresses key topics that are not frequently covered in the literature, such as the geo-political implications of cross-border pipelines and the legal implications of mining contracts and regional financial obligations. The contributors, all of whom are leading researchers with experience of working with governments and companies on these issues, present an authoritative collection of chapters. The volume reviews international tax rules, covering both developments in the G20-OECD project on ’Base Erosion and Profit Shifting’ and more radical proposals, identifying core challenges in the extractives sector. This book should become a core resource for both scholars and practitioners. It will also appeal to those interested in international tax issues more widely and those who study environmental economics, macroeconomics and development economics

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper aims to contribute to the discussion by sketching ways in which the taxation equity-efficiency frontier could be shifted outward in the Netherlands. In a nutshell, we argue that significant efficiency gains could be achieved by shifting the tax burden away from labor, and toward consumption and capital—especially housing. The detrimental impact of the tax-benefit system on labor supply—in particular by mothers—and the insufficient and distortionary use of the value-added tax (VAT) as a revenue-collection mechanism is also highlighted in the paper. This paper also reviews the main features of the Dutch tax system and sketches the contours of a hypothetical tax reform.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This paper discusses prospects for potential growth, house prices, household debt, and financial stability risks, and tax policy reforms in New Zealand. Despite having world-class institutions and strong policy framework, income levels remain low relative to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. During 1980–2014, per capita income levels have remained about 20 percent below the OECD's average income. Longstanding structural issues need to be addressed to boost potential growth. House prices and household debt have increased rapidly in New Zealand over the past two decades. New Zealand's low national saving rate is a source of vulnerability and likely contributes to the relatively high interest rates needed to attract foreign capital.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the housing prices in Australia. Housing prices in Australia have increased strongly over the past two decades, including by comparison internationally. Thus housing prices are often argued to be overvalued. Many counter-arguments have been put forward for why such measures are flawed. This paper argues that housing prices are moderately stronger than consistent with current economic fundamentals, but less than a comparison to historical or international averages would suggest. International comparisons of price-to-income ratios suggest that Australia is broadly in line with comparator countries, although significant data comparability issues make inference difficult.

Abstract

Although the future extent and effects of global climate change remain uncertain, the expected damages are not zero, and risks of serious environmental and macroeconomic consequences rise with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Despite the uncertainties, reducing emissions now makes sense, and a carbon tax is the simplest, most effective, and least costly way to do this. At the same time, a carbon tax would provide substantial new revenues which may be badly needed, given historically high debt-to-GDP levels, pressures on social security and medical budgets, and calls to reform taxes on personal and corporate income. This book is about the practicalities of introducing a carbon tax in the United States, set against the broader fiscal context. It consists of thirteen chapters, written by leading experts, covering the full range of issues policymakers would need to understand, such as the revenue potential of a carbon tax, how the tax can be administered, the advantages of carbon taxes over other mitigation instruments and the environmental and macroeconomic impacts of the tax. A carbon tax can work in the United States. This volume shows how, by laying out sound design principles, opportunities for broader policy reforms, and feasible solutions to specific implementation challenges.