Africa > Angola

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Thomas McGregor
How do oil price movements affect sovereign spreads in an oil-dependent economy? I develop a stochastic general equilibrium model of an economy exposed to co-moving oil price and output processes, with endogenous sovereign default risk. The model explains a large proportion of business cycle fluctuations in interest-rate spreads in oil-exporting emerging market economies, particularly the countercyclicallity of interest rate spreads and oil prices. Higher risk-aversion, more impatient governments, larger oil shares and a stronger correlation between domestic output and oil price shocks all lead to stronger co-movements between risk premiums and the oil price.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This Technical Assistance Report on Angola highlights that the Angolan authorities’ plan to scale up priority spending will intensify fiscal pressures. The overall fiscal balance is projected to reach a deficit of about 4 percent of GDP in 2014, owing to a temporary decline in oil production. Besides being fiscally costly, fuel subsidies are inefficient and inequitable. They crowd out growth-enhancing spending?Angola’s spending in fuel subsidies is roughly the same as outlays in education and 42 percent larger than health-spending countries. In addition, they provide rent seeking opportunities and raise governance challenges. Furthermore, subsidies create incentives for overconsumption and in turn worsen traffic congestion and accidents?after malaria, road accidents are the second leading cause of death in Angola. Moreover, because most of the benefits of fuel price subsidies accrue to well-off households, they reinforce inequality?more than 50 percent of subsidies go to households in the top 20 percent of the income distribution. The authorities plan to reduce fuel subsidies gradually. This report provides a reform option that would eliminate fuel subsidies and result in fiscal savings of 2 percent of GDP.
Mr. Andrew Berg, Mr. Rafael A Portillo, Ms. Susan S. Yang, and Luis-Felipe Zanna
Natural resource revenues provide a valuable source to finance public investment in developing countries, which frequently face borrowing constraints and tax revenue mobilization problems. This paper develops a dynamic stochastic small open economy model to analyze the macroeconomic effects of investing natural resource revenues, making explicit the role of pervasive features in these countries including public investment inefficiency, absorptive capacity constraints, Dutch disease, and financing needs to sustain capital. Revenue exhaustibility raises medium-term issues of how to sustain capital built during a windfall, while revenue volatility raises short-term concerns about macroeconomic instability. Using the model, country applications show how combining public investment with a resource fund---a sustainable investing approach---can help address the macroeconomic problems associated with both exhaustibility and volatility. The applications also demonstrate how the model can be used to determine the appropriate magnitude of the investment scaling-up (accounting for the financing needs to sustain capital) and the adequate size of a stabilization fund (buffer).
Mr. Robert C York and Ms. Misa Takebe
In the extensive empirical work carried out across the IMF on oil-producing sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the notion of "sustainability" is often directed toward fiscal policies, and, in particular, views on the "optimal" non-oil primary fiscal deficit. The bulk of this work does not, however, address external sustainability, which is a concern especially for those SSA oil producers operating under a fixed exchange rate regime. A couple of recent papers have extended the existing methodologies to assess external sustainability for some oil-producing countries but they do not focus on those in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we bolster this empirical work by providing a range of estimates for the long-run external current external account balance for each of the SSA oil-producing countries, based on three widely used methodologies in the IMF. Our research strategy is to apply these models to the eight countries in the subregion - Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, and the Republic of Congo - using similar simplifying assumptions so that we are using the same lens to view how they do and do not differ.
International Monetary Fund
This paper looks at the question of adequacy of reserves in sub-Saharan African countries in light of the shocks faced by these countries. Literature on optimal reserves so far has not paid attention to the particular shocks facing low-income countries. We use a two-good endowment economy model facing terms of trade and aid shocks to derive the optimal level of reserves by comparing the cost of holding reserves with their benefits as an insurance against a shock. We find that the optimal level of reserves depends upon the size of these shocks, their probability, and the output cost associated with them,