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International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper analyzes transmission of the great recession from advanced to emerging economies. The widespread impact of the global financial crisis of 2008–09 has spurred researchers to examine how the associated recession was transmitted from advanced to emerging economies. Recent IMF studies have found that precrisis vulnerabilities such as large current account deficits, rapid credit growth, and high levels of short-term debt were strongly associated with the magnitude of spillovers. Trade, bank lending, and financial markets served as key transmission channels.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper describes the need to broaden the agenda for poverty reduction. The broadening of the agenda follows from a growing understanding that poverty is more than low income, a lack of education, and poor health. The poor are frequently powerless to influence the social and economic factors that determine their well being. The paper highlights that a broader definition of poverty requires a broader set of actions to fight it and increases the challenge of measuring poverty and comparing achievement across countries and over time.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper highlights that on September 29, 1982, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) began to offer discount notes under a short-term borrowing program approved by its Board last July. The Bank anticipates that in fiscal year 1983, it will have outstanding up to US$1.5 billion in short-term discount notes and that it will borrow about US$8 billion in the fixed-rate medium to long-term markets. The initial offering of notes is being made in the U.S. domestic markets.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper describes the technical improvement in developing countries. It highlights that developing countries have relied heavily for their industrial development upon foreign enterprises as sources of technology and management systems. The paper underscores that through direct investment or under licensing arrangements, foreign corporations have supplied a vast array of industrial products and equipment and have exercised a major role in the design and construction of processing and manufacturing facilities in newly industrializing countries.