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Mr. Luca A Ricci, Mr. Jonathan David Ostry, Mr. Jaewoo Lee, Mr. Alessandro Prati, and Mr. Gian M Milesi-Ferretti

Abstract

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on multilateral surveillance, macro-financial linkages, and the implications of globalization. The IMF's Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER)--formed in the mid-1990s to provide exchange rate assessments for a number of advanced economies from a multilateral perspective--has therefore broadened its mandate to cover both key advanced economies and major emerging market economies. This Occasional Paper summarizes the methodologies that underpin the expanded analysis.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The papers published in this volume are based on an IMF seminar held in 2000 that covered a broad range of topics on monetary and financial law, such as the liberalization of capital movements, data dissemination, responsibilities of central banks, and the IMF’s goals in financial surveillance and architecture. Participants addressed recent issues in the financial sector, including those related to payment systems and supervision of financial institutions. Updates dealt with Internet banking, bank secrecy, and currency arrangements-including dollarization. Participants discussed the recent activities of the other international financial institutions, which included the European Central Bank and the International Finance Corporation. Prevention of financial crises was also discussed, with reference to the distinct roles of the IMF and the private sector.

International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Abstract

Analysis and Plans, presents an assessment of 1997 survey data and a summary of improvements introduced, as a result of countries' participation in the 1997 Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, into national systems for collecting data on international (cross-border) portfolio investment The chapter reviews developments that occurred in international financial markets in the 1980s and 1990s, and the Godeaux Report assessment and recommendations about global data on international portfolio investment flows and stocks. The objectives set for the 1997 survey, the scope of survey results, and the process by which results have been assessed in the chapter. Since publication of the Godeaux Report, substantial expansion and evolution have occurred in exchange and over-the-counter markets for financial derivatives covering a range of financial risks. These markets now have the capacity, in effect, to change the currencies, maturities, and marketability of the financial instruments underlying associated derivative contracts. It is recommended that vigorous efforts should be made to secure the participation of more major investing countries in order to address the under-reporting of global portfolio investment assets and to confirm the reliability of the global data on portfolio investment liabilities.

Mr. Thomas Helbling and Ms. Sena Eken

Abstract

Following the 15-year civil war that started in 1975, Lebanon's government began the difficult task of economic stabilization and confidence building, on the one hand, and postwar reconstruction and development, on the other. The government led the reconstruction effort by formulating programs that aimed to rapidly rehabilitate the country's severly damaged infrastructure in preparation for private-sector-led growth over the medium term. At the same time, Lebanon introduced an exchange-rate-based nominal anchor policy to stabilize expectations and cut inflation. This paper analyzes the government's progress with the policies adopted.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper reviews recent developments in private market financing for developing countries. Bank creditors themselves have been more amenable to restructuring in an environment where secondary market discounts on bank claims were falling significantly below the level of bank provisioning. This has allowed banks to realize substantial book profits by participating in debt operations. Debt conversions have also played a substantial role in reducing commercial bank debt. The pace of such conversions, however, has slowed over the past year in response to lower secondary market discounts on external debt and to a drop in privatization-related conversions. The re-entry to international capital markets by certain middle-income countries that had experienced debt-servicing difficulties gathered momentum over the past year. Total bond issues in international markets by the main re-entrants accounted for over half of issues by developing countries in this period. In contrast to the experience in securities markets, new bank lending to market re-entrants has remained limited and is confined mainly to short-term trade lines or project financing.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper presents a survey by IMF staff of recent trends in private market financing for developing countries. In addition to summarizing recent developments in capital flows to developing countries through banking and securities markets, it analyzes three issues of particular interest in the debt and financing outlook for developing countries. The underlying structure of market financing for several developing countries has undergone significant change in the recent past. The change has been prompted by recognition of the adverse impact of continued uncertainty about debt refinancing terms and of a growing debt stock on countries’ development prospects, and by a concurrent reduction in banks’ financial vulnerability arising from their developing country portfolios. The analysis focuses on the extent to which capital repatriation may be influenced by such specific actions as amnesties, capital account liberalization, the availability of foreign-currency denominated instruments, and debt conversion schemes.

Juanita Roushdy

Abstract

In the years since the SDR was created, the international monetary system has experienced a number of profound changes. The present paper sketches the effects of these changes on perceptions of the role that the SDR can and should play in that system.

Mr. G. G. Johnson and Mr. Richard K. Abrams

Abstract

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of strains in international banking has raised questions about the prospects for continuity of international intermediation by banks.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper presents the fourth survey of certain changes in international and national monetary law and practice in relation to special drawing rights (SDRs), currencies, and gold. SDRs have characteristics that enable them to function as a supplement to existing reserve assets in the sense that they can be used as a form of international liquidity by members of the IMF participating in the SDR Department. The IMF has taken decisions to expand the uses of the SDR. Whether or not any of the newly authorized operations take place, the decisions authorizing them must be taken into account in any legal analysis of the character of the SDR.