Mr. Jian-Ye Wang, Mr. Yo Kikuchi, Mr. Sidhartha Choudhury, and Mr. Mario Mansilla
This paper assesses the issues of government involvement in international trade finance stemming from the recent changes in global financial markets. This study is based on discussions with representatives of export credit agencies during the period from October 2003 to May 2004. A survey of 27 agencies provided valuable insights. Financial flows facilitated by official export credit agencies are large in comparison with official development assistance and gross lending by international financial institutions to developing countries. However, the importance of officially supported trade finance has been declining relative to the rapid expansion of world trade and total capital flows to developing countries. The study highlights the key challenges facing official export credit agencies, including complementing the private sector, facilitating financing to low-income countries while helping maintain these countries’ debt sustainability, and playing a positive role in the area of trade finance in international efforts to address emerging market financial crises.
The year 2005 marks an important juncture for development as the international community takes stock of implementation of the Millennium Declaration—signed by 189 countries in 2000—and discusses how progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) can be accelerated. The MDGs set clear targets for reducing poverty and other human deprivations and for promoting sustainable development. What progress has been made toward these goals, and what should be done to accelerate it? What are the responsibilities of developing countries, developed countries, and international financial institutions? Global Monitoring Report 2005 addresses these questions. This report, the second in an annual series assessing progress on the MDGs and related development outcomes, has a special focus on Sub-Saharan Africa—the region that is farthest from the development goals and faces the toughest challenges in accelerating progress. The report finds that without rapid action to accelerate progress, the MDGs will be seriously jeopardized—especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is falling short on all the goals. It calls on the international community to seize the opportunities presented by the increased global attention to development to build momentum for the MDGs. The report presents in-depth analysis of the agenda and priorities for action. It discusses improvements in policies and governance that developing countries need to make to achieve stronger economic growth and scale up human development and relevant key services. It examines actions that developed countries need to take to provide more and better development aid and to reform their trade policies to improve market access for developing country exports. And it evaluates how international financial institutions can strengthen and sharpen their support for this agenda. Global Monitoring Report 2005 is essential reading for development practitioners and those interested in international affairs.
Mr. Ramana Ramaswamy, Mr. Jorge Roldos, Mr. Donald J Mathieson, and Ms. Anna Ilyina
In response to the volatility of capital flows since the mid-1990s, many emerging market economies have taken a variety of steps designed to “selfinsure” against volatile capital flows. One such measure has been the development of local securities and derivatives markets as an alternative source of funding the public and corporate sectors. This paper examines this self-insurance policy, focusing on the extent to which emerging markets have developed local securities and derivatives, and what key policy issues have arisen as a result.
This paper reports the on-off nature of emerging market access to international capital markets appears to have become a key characteristic of international financial markets. Emerging market borrowers have begun to adapt: when the market for US dollar-denominated bonds has closed, these borrowers turn to the syndicated loan markets, attempt to issue in bonds denominated in euro or yen, or issue in local-currency bond markets. In addition, they employ staff with extensive experience in investment banking and securities trading, exploit “windows of opportunity” to prefund their yearly financing requirement, and engage in debt exchanges to extend the maturity of their debt and avoid a bunching of maturities. The consolidation of financial institutions is driven by attempts to exploit economies of scale and scope, and technological advances such as the Internet and deregulation that facilitate universal banking activities are making it easier to reap such economies. Advances in technology are also transforming the securities trading industry.
Following a review and assesment of recent developments in capital market and banking systems, this year's International Capital Markets report review and assesses recent developments in mature and emerging financial markets and continues the analysis of key issues affecting global financial markets. It examines the systemic implications of the continued rapid development of the global over-the-counter derivatives markets and the expansion of foreign-owned banks into emerging markets. The report also analyzes market participants assessments of the proposals for private sector involvement in the prevention and resolution of crises.
Analysis and Plans, presents an assessment of 1997 survey data and a summary of improvements introduced, as a result of countries' participation in the 1997 Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, into national systems for collecting data on international (cross-border) portfolio investment The chapter reviews developments that occurred in international financial markets in the 1980s and 1990s, and the Godeaux Report assessment and recommendations about global data on international portfolio investment flows and stocks. The objectives set for the 1997 survey, the scope of survey results, and the process by which results have been assessed in the chapter. Since publication of the Godeaux Report, substantial expansion and evolution have occurred in exchange and over-the-counter markets for financial derivatives covering a range of financial risks. These markets now have the capacity, in effect, to change the currencies, maturities, and marketability of the financial instruments underlying associated derivative contracts. It is recommended that vigorous efforts should be made to secure the participation of more major investing countries in order to address the under-reporting of global portfolio investment assets and to confirm the reliability of the global data on portfolio investment liabilities.
Following a review and assessment of recent developments in capital market and banking systems, this year's International Capital Markets report reviews and assesses recent developments in mature and emerging financial markets and continues the analysis of key issues affecting global financial markets. It examines the systemic implications of the continued rapid development of the global over-the-counter derivatives markets and the expansion of foreign-owned banks into emerging markets. The report also analyzes market participants' assessments of the proposals for private sector involvement in the prevention and resolution crises.
This interim update of the IMF's latest regular reports on the World Economic Outlook (published in October 1998) and International Capital Markets (September 1998) provides a preliminary assessment of the unusual turbulence in international financial markets during much of the period August-November 1998, and its implications for the global economic outlook and for policy. The survey of prospects and policies is the product of a comprehensive interdepartmental review of world economic developments, which draws primarily on information the IMF gathers through its consultations with member countries. For its eveluation of developments in financial markets, the report also draws, in part, on informal discussions with commercial and investment banks, securities firms, stock and futures exchanges, and regulatory and monetary authorities.
This year's capital markets report provides a comprehensive survey of recent developments and trends in the advanced and emerging capital markets, focusing on financial market behavior during the Asian crisis, policy lessons for dealing with volatility in capital flows, banking sector developments in the advanced and emerging markets, initiatives in banking system supervision and regulation, and the financial infrastructure for managing systemic risk in EMU.
Mr. Carl-Johan Lindgren and Mr. D. F. I. Folkerts-Landau
This study outlines the broad principles and characteristics of stable and sound financial systems, to facilitate IMF sruveillance over banking sector issues of macroeconomic significance and to contribute the general international effort to reduce the likelihood and diminish the intensity of future financial sector crises.