International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department
A recovery is underway, but the economic fallout from the global pandemic could be with us for years to come. With the crisis exacerbating prepandemic vulnerabilities, country prospects are diverging. Nearly half of emerging market and developing economies and some middle-income countries are now at risk of falling further behind, undoing much of the progress made toward achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department
This issue of Annual Report discusses that the global economy is at a delicate moment. The expansion of early 2018 has lost momentum, in large part in response to rising trade tensions. There are threats from rising financial vulnerabilities and geopolitical uncertainties. These challenges call for policymakers to avoid missteps and to take the right policy steps: at home, across borders, and globally. In addition to several major reviews looking at IMF conditionality, economic and financial surveillance, and lending facilities, the management has deepened its analysis on trade spillovers and financial stability and are revamping frameworks for debt sustainability assessment in low-income and market access countries. Building on earlier research that showed how trade can boost incomes and living standards by enabling the flow of technology across countries, the October 2018 World Economic Outlook provided illustrative scenarios of the potential impact of escalating trade tensions between the United States and China.
The past year was one of growing economic anxiety tied to skepticism about both economic integration and an international approach to economic policy making. To help make globalization work for all, the IMF focused on providing policy advice in many macro-critical areas.
During the past financial year, the IMF’s 189 member countries faced a number of pressing challenges. IMF work on these challenges - slower trade, declining productivity, gender inequality, inclusive growth, and debt management - is a central focus of this 2017 Annual Report.
The audited consolidated financial statements of the International Monetary Fund as of April 30, 2017 and 2016 include the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, of changes in reserves, resources, and retained earnings, and of cash flows for the years then ended. The IMF’s financial statements were audited by external auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLC, which certified that they were prepared and presented in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. The standards include the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of consolidated financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.
This paper outlines that the IMF is exposed to various types of operational and financial risks, including credit, market, liquidity, and income risks. The Executive Board of the IMF has overall responsibility for the establishment and oversight of the IMF’s risk management framework. The risk management framework encompasses primarily strategic, financial, and operational risks. As part of this framework, the Advisory Committee on Risk Management (ACRM) has been established to analyze, synthesize, and report on risks. Credit risk on credit outstanding refers to potential losses owing to the failure of member countries to make repurchases. Credit risk is inherent in the IMF's unique role in the international monetary system since the IMF has limited ability to diversify its loan portfolio and generally provides financing when other sources are not available to a member. Measures to help mitigate the IMF's credit risk include policies on access limits, program design, monitoring, and economic policies that members agree to follow as a condition for IMF financing; early repurchase policies; and preventative, precautionary, remedial measures and precautionary balances to cope with the financial consequences of protracted arrears.
The year was marked by difficult challenges and milestone achievements. To reinvigorate modest growth at a time of uncertainty about a complicated global economy, the IMF membership endorsed a three-pronged approach of monetary, fiscal, and structural policies to get the world economy back on a stronger and safer growth track. Highlights of the IMF’s work during the year included entry into effect of its quota and governance reforms approved in 2010, which increase the Fund’s core resources and make it more representative of the membership; commitments for increased financial support, policy advice, expertise, and training to help low-income developing countries achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals; analysis of the international monetary system; inclusion of the Chinese currency in the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right; and policy advice on the economic repercussions of mass migration of refugees from Syria and other conflict-afflicted states. The IMF Annual Report, which covers the period May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016, discusses all of these issues, plus a wide range of policy matters that the Executive Board addressed during the year.