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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

introducing paternity leave, 16 promoting parity in paternity and maternity leave, and flexible work arrangements 17 can also complement policies to balance family and work responsibilities. 18 12. Access to finance for women could be improved to help raise the productivity of enterprises owned and managed by women . Jordanian women are entitled to obtain bank loans and other forms of credit. However, their access is limited by their inability to provide the required collateral. 19 In order to raise the productivity of women-owned and -managed enterprises, access to

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper reviews Pakistan’s tax regime, evaluates the level and composition of tax revenues, and estimates tax buoyancy and efficiency. Despite recent progress under the program, Pakistan’s tax revenue remains very low relative to comparator developing countries and the tax effort expected for the country’s level of development. This reflects narrow tax bases, overgenerous tax concessions and exemptions, weak and fragmented revenue administrations, and structural features of the economy. The findings suggest that unlocking tax revenue potential requires broadening tax bases, strengthening revenue administration and taxpayer compliance, eliminating distortionary tax expenditures, and rationalizing tax policy for greater efficiency and equity through a comprehensive and front-loaded reform agenda.
Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, Christine Kamunge, Pooja Karnane, Salma Khalid, and Ms. Kalpana Kochhar
New technologies?digitalization, artificial intelligence, and machine learning?are changing the way work gets done at an unprecedented rate. Helping people adapt to a fast-changing world of work and ameliorating its deleterious impacts will be the defining challenge of our time. What are the gender implications of this changing nature of work? How vulnerable are women’s jobs to risk of displacement by technology? What policies are needed to ensure that technological change supports a closing, and not a widening, of gender gaps? This SDN finds that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men across all sectors and occupations?tasks that are most prone to automation. Given the current state of technology, we estimate that 26 million female jobs in 30 countries (28 OECD member countries, Cyprus, and Singapore) are at a high risk of being displaced by technology (i.e., facing higher than 70 percent likelihood of being automated) within the next two decades. Female workers face a higher risk of automation compared to male workers (11 percent of the female workforce, relative to 9 percent of the male workforce), albeit with significant heterogeneity across sectors and countries. Less well-educated and older female workers (aged 40 and above), as well as those in low-skill clerical, service, and sales positions are disproportionately exposed to automation. Extrapolating our results, we find that around 180 million female jobs are at high risk of being displaced globally. Policies are needed to endow women with required skills; close gender gaps in leadership positions; bridge digital gender divide (as ongoing digital transformation could confer greater flexibility in work, benefiting women); ease transitions for older and low-skilled female workers.
International Monetary Fund

, it rigidly ties the entire pay scale to a single reference value that is envisaged to increase rapidly between 2010–15 (by 56 percent), which might require unfeasible cuts in public employment to reach the wage bill targets. Pay is not benchmarked on private sector salaries and not grouped by type of work responsibility as recommended by World Bank experts. The bonus reforms are also more timid than staff had advocated. Subsequent implementing legislation—detailing further modifications to take effect in 2011—will be introduced by end-September 2010 and is expected

Mr. Ferhan Salman

). In addition, publicly financed parental leave schemes, parity in paternity and maternity leave, and flexible work arrangements can also complement policies to balance family and work responsibilities ( Jaumotte 2003 ; Aguirre and others 2012 ; World Bank 2012 ). Infrastructure spending on rural access to clean water and transportation could also reduce the time women spend on domestic tasks and facilitate their access to markets ( Koolwal and van de Walle 2013 ). Impediments to women’s access to finance could be removed to help to raise the productivity of

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

attendance through conditional cash transfers. 17 Budgetary resources could be allocated to provide access to comprehensive, affordable and high-quality daycare services 18 which would free up women’s time for caring young and elderly and facilitate and increase in female labor force participation. 19 In addition, publicly financed parental leave schemes, 20 promoting parity in paternity and maternity leave and flexible work arrangements 21 can also complement policies to balance family and work responsibilities. 22 Rural infrastructure spending on access to clean

Mr. Jack Diamond

users, since this may compromise the required decision-making process and its legitimacy. Select a dedicated project team and steering committee: Many FMIS developments have failed, or produced unsatisfactory results, because insufficient investment was placed in the team that managed the project. Using a part-time team is not recommended, because such an approach invariably produces an FMIS that is late or fails to adequately satisfy user requirements. The team needs to be separated from day-to-day work responsibilities, but should not be too isolated from the

International Monetary Fund

’Aoust, cutting off the credit given to his prior experience at ten years, that of itself did not give rise to a cause of action against the Fund on the ground of inequality of treatment.” The Tribunal would later distinguish between the form of discrimination alleged in Mr. “R” and Ms. “G” , i.e., allocation of employment benefits according to work responsibilities or visa status, with alleged discrimination implicating universally accepted principles of human rights. See Mr. “F”, Applicant v. International Monetary Fund, Respondent , IMFAT Judgment No. 2005-1 (March 18

International Monetary Fund

around 40 percent, trailing the average in BiH’s Balkan peers and the EU by 15 and 22 percentage points, respectively ( BHAS, 2008 ; ILO 2009 ). Women activity rates are below regional and EU comparators in both entities, though the outcome in the RS is around 10 percentage points better than in the Federation. While this is a complex socio-economic phenomenon, one contributing factor is the very low enrollment of children in pre-school programs in BiH (due to their scarcity in rural areas and cost), which complicates the simultaneous carrying-out of family and work