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Mr. Francesco Caselli, Mr. Francesco Grigoli, Mr. Damiano Sandri, and Mr. Antonio Spilimbergo

–24 and to 3.7 percentage points for those aged 45–64. For people in the age group 65+, the fall in women’s mobility is statistically indistinguishable from the men’s one. These results are thus closely aligned with those of the RD analysis. Table 2: Gender Gap at the Trough of the Estimated Response 18–24 25–44 45–64 65+ (1) (3) (4) Lockdown stringency -27.07*** (1.80) -20.60*** (1.60) -19.75*** (1.57) -15.19*** (1.77) Women × lockdown stringency -3.58*** (0.95) -4.73*** (0.67) -3.69*** (0.73) 2

Mr. Francesco Caselli, Mr. Francesco Grigoli, Mr. Damiano Sandri, and Mr. Antonio Spilimbergo
Lockdowns and voluntary social distancing led to significant reduction in people’s mobility. Yet, there is scant evidence on the heterogeneous effects across segments of the population. Using unique mobility indicators based on anonymized and aggregate data provided by Vodafone for Italy, Portugal, and Spain, we find that lockdowns had a larger impact on the mobility of women and younger cohorts. Younger people also experienced a sharper drop in mobility in response to rising COVID-19 infections. Our findings, which are consistent across estimation methods and robust to a variety of tests, warn about a possible widening of gender and inter-generational inequality and provide important inputs for the formulation of targeted policies.