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Berkay Akyapi, Mr. Matthieu Bellon, and Emanuele Massetti
A growing literature estimates the macroeconomic effect of weather using variations in annual country-level averages of temperature and precipitation. However, averages may not reveal the effects of extreme events that occur at a higher time frequency or higher spatial resolution. To address this issue, we rely on global daily weather measurements with a 30-km spatial resolution from 1979 to 2019 and construct 164 weather variables and their lags. We select a parsimonious subset of relevant weather variables using an algorithm based on the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator. We also expand the literature by analyzing weather impacts on government revenue, expenditure, and debt, in addition to GDP per capita. We find that an increase in the occurrence of high temperatures and droughts reduce GDP, whereas more frequent mild temperatures have a positive impact. The share of GDP variations that is explained by weather as captured by the handful of our selected variables is much higher than what was previously implied by using annual temperature and precipitation averages. We also find evidence of counter-cyclical fiscal policies that mitigate adverse weather shocks, especially excessive or unusually low precipitation episodes.
Berkay Akyapi, Mr. Matthieu Bellon, and Emanuele Massetti
International Monetary Fund
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on the Republic of Madagascar explain the Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) to accelerate and better coordinate the development process. The National Leadership Institute of Madagascar (NLIM) was created in 2006 to provide cutting-edge training to build leadership capacity at all levels of government and for all sectors of society. The Economic Development Board of Madagascar (EDBM) is charged with ensuring that the business climate of Madagascar is attractive for companies and conducive for the success of private enterprises.
International Monetary Fund

forecasts across the nation will be improved. Strategies Expand and modernize the national weather observation network. Establish a national weather forecast information system and extend weather forecasts to regions. Promote regional and international cooperation on meteorological issues, especially major events such as cyclones. Provide specialised services for industries such as agribusiness. PRIORITY PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES PROJECT LEADER 1. Standardize the national observation networks with adequate and automated

International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses key findings of the 2004 Status Report on Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for Niger. The report assesses economic and financial performance, as well as progress in implementing sectoral policies and strategies in 2004. Analysis of the economic and financial situation in 2004 confirms the vulnerability of Niger’s economy to the vagaries of the weather, as reflected in a fluctuating rate of economic growth. The growth rate in 2004 was -0.6 percent, versus 3.8 percent in 2003, owing to a drop in agricultural output.
International Monetary Fund

” policy, thus encouraging use of the Diori Hamani International Airport of Niamey; Substantial increase (roughly 31 percent) in aircraft fees between 2003 and 2004 (CFAF 1,058,943,407 in 2004); Creation of two new airline companies (Niger Air Continental and Point Afrique Niger S.A.); Improvements in airport security through technical equipment upgrades. Actions undertaken in the area of meteorology have focused on strengthening the weather observation network and developing synergy with the early warning system for food security and environmental and water

International Monetary Fund

to be completed for lack of financing. 3.4.11.3 Air Transportation 362. The government considers air transportation to be of strategic importance given the geographical situation of Burkina Faso. To make this system reliable, the government has taken steps to improve airport security by fitting the facility with OACI-compliant security equipment; it has also continued updating the national aeronautical weather network. Government actions in this sector have also included expansion and management of the weather observation station network. Given the

International Monetary Fund
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) on Burkina Faso explains the status of the PRSP, implementation, and key strategic areas. Actions to reduce the vulnerability of the poor have had more noticeable impact, as have actions to increase employment opportunities and promote income-generating activities. Efforts to improve governance have led to major reforms in the justice system and fiscal management, as well as continued action to improve administrative management, strengthen public security, and further decentralization. The government expects the various development partners to provide more resources and greater assistance for the budgetary support mechanism.
International Monetary Fund

000 Bamenda provincial service 20 000 Funds already made available to these services for the acquisition of equipment and furniture MINTRANSPORTS Central services 70 000 Acquisition of pick-ups for provincial delegates 250 000 Supply contract awarded (computers and split) Contract awarded and executed 46-906-206 Meteo and environmental monitoring 80 000 80 000 Acquisition of weather observation equipment Contract awarded and executed 46-932-153 Acquisition of various MMDM-OM equipment 80 000 80 000 Acquisition of VSAT

International Monetary Fund

: (i) reinforce the weather observation and surveillance networks, (ii) improve the collection, processing, and archiving of weather and climatic data, (iii) make weather and climatic products available to the users, (iv) rehabilitate equipment (weather radars in Niamey and Zinder). 444. Handicraft Cluster : Handicraft provides many jobs. According to the RGP/H 2001 results, there are nearly 367,000 micro and small handicraft enterprises (MPEA), in more than 115 activities employing more than 600 000 persons. The proportion of women handicraft is 52%. They are