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International Monetary Fund

holds at the industry level: the wage gap widens in skilled-intensive sectors while it shrinks in unskilled-intensive ones, the more so as terms of trade volatility decreases. A. Motivation 5. To motivate the discussion, thus, we need to focus on two facts : (i) the direct relation between terms of trade shocks and income distribution, and (ii) how the latter is conditional on factor intensities. 6. In Chile, there is a co- movement between terms of trade and relative wages (skilled vs. unskilled) . These variables have been relatively stable until 2003, and

International Monetary Fund
This paper examines the impact of trade costs on real exchange rate volatility. The channel is examined by constructing a two-country Ricardian model of trade, based on the work of Dornbusch, Fischer, and Samuelson (1977), which shows that higher trade costs result in a larger nontradable sector. This, in turn, leads to higher real exchange rate volatility. We provide empirical evidence supporting the channel.
Mr. Jesus R Gonzalez-Garcia and Mr. John Cady
The effects of the adoption of the IMF's International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity Data Template on nominal exchange rate volatility are investigated for 48 countries. Estimation of panel data models indicates that nominal exchange rate volatility decreases following dissemination of reserves template data while the effects of indebtedness and reserve adequacy on volatility exhibit statistically significant changes.