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Ms. Kimberly Beaton, Aliona Cebotari, and Andras Komaromi

important for explaining the relationship between trade and economic growth. The remainder of this section explores whether the characteristics of countries’ trade connections can enhance economic growth . The analysis expands the benchmark regression to explore the trade-growth nexus between countries’ trade connectivity, including their participation in global value-chains, as well as the composition of their export markets and products. International Trade Connectivity Network indicators are an alternative way to assess the importance of countries’ trade

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

The Macroeconomics of Pakistan’s Quest for Energy and the CPEC 1 Pakistan has embarked on a massive investment program in energy and infrastructure sectors, partly in the context of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). This chapter discusses some of the expected benefits of these investments as well as their potential macroeconomic impact. The planned investments are expected to eliminate Pakistan’s energy deficit, improve the economy’s fuel mix, reduce energy costs, raise overall business productivity and trade connectivity, and provide a

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Cluster Report explores opportunities for trade integration in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. It finds that the region can reap significant growth benefits from further trade integration. With trade integration below that of other regions, there is scope for Latin America and the Caribbean to increase trade as an engine of growth to help offset the weaker economic outlook without damage to overall income inequality. There is potential to enhance both inter- and intraregional trade integration, but renewed political momentum within the region in support of greater trade openness could do much to further intraregional trade integration in particular.
Ms. Kimberly Beaton, Aliona Cebotari, Xiaodan Ding, and Andras Komaromi
The paper applies a network analysis framework to analyze the regional and global integration of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. We compare network-based measures of trade integration to conventional measures, decomposing integration along several dimensions to better understand the sources of trade connectivity and their impact on growth. The paper finds that LAC countries are relatively well integrated in terms of links to diversified markets, but the strength of those links is weak. Comparing trade integration to predictions from gravity models, we find many LAC countries have significant scope to improve connectivity and increase their roles in regional and world trade networks.
Ms. Kimberly Beaton, Aliona Cebotari, Xiaodan Ding, and Andras Komaromi

connectivity with regional partners (in this case measured by the shares of intraregional exports to total exports) is also associated with larger growth effects than connectivity outside the own region, suggesting considerable scope for LAC countries to boost growth through stronger intra-regional trade. Figure 20. Trade Connectivity and Economic Growth (impact on 5-year average real per capita growth rate from moving from the 25 to the 75 percentile of trade statistic; in percentage points) Note: Based on system GMM estimates of the impact of trade on growth

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses Cote d’Ivoire’s Sixth Review Under the Arrangement of the Extended Credit Facility and the Extended Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility, and Request for Extension and Augmentation of Access. Côte d’Ivoire has been pursuing a development-oriented policy agenda, and the IMF-supported program in place since 2016 has supported that focus, paving the way for the private sector to become the main driver of growth. The performance under the program has been strong. The medium-term growth prospects remain robust, predicated on continuing prudent macroeconomic policy, furthering financial sector reforms and sustaining structural reforms to bolster private sector-led inclusive growth. Côte d’Ivoire’s reform efforts have resulted in improvements in its business climate in recent years. It will be imperative to continue the reform agenda to further stimulate private sector activity and support inclusive growth, including by improving the energy sector, human capital and financial inclusion, accelerating digitalization, enhancing trade connectivity and governance, expanding the coverage of social safety nets, and reinforcing the statistical apparatus to help better inform economic policy.
Ms. Kimberly Beaton, Aliona Cebotari, and Andras Komaromi

Tables 1: International Trade and Economic Growth 2: International Trade Connectivity and Economic Growth 3: Participation in Global Value Chains and Economic Growth 4: Export Markets and Economic Growth 5: Export Product Characteristics and Economic Growth 6: Economic Performance and Liberalization Status, 1970–2015 7: Trade Openness and Inequality 8: Income Inequality and Liberalization Status, 1970–2015 Annex I. Data Sources

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

. “Accelerating public bank restructuring will also be essential to further strengthen the resilience of the banking sector. Further strengthening the AML/CFT frameworks and their implementation is also important. “Côte d’Ivoire’s reform efforts have resulted in improvements in its business climate in recent years. It will be imperative to continue the reform agenda to further stimulate private sector activity and support inclusive growth, including by improving the energy sector, human capital and financial inclusion, accelerating digitalization, enhancing trade connectivity