Automated trade execution systems are examined with respect to the degree to which they automate the price discovery process. Seven levels of automation of price discovery are identified, and 47 systems are classified according to these criteria. Systems operating at various levels of automation are compared with respect to age, geographical location, and type of securities traded. Information provided to market participants, and asymmetries of information between traders with direct access to the automated market and outside investors also are examined. It is found, for example, that the degree of asymmetric information increases with the level of automation of price discovery. The potential for trading abuses related to prearranged trading, noncompetitive execution, and trading ahead of customers is analyzed for each level of automation. Certain levels of automation widen the opportunities for trading abuses in some respects, but may narrow them in others.
The earliest systems perform trade matching based on time and order type priorities, with the transaction price determined from a floor or telephonemarket operating at the same time. There is no price discovery mechanism. Such systems typically provide automated execution for limited sizes of orders. For example, RAES operates in tandem with the options trading floor of the Chicago Board of Options Exchange. The crowd in the pit is trading continuously, and the best bid and offer outstanding on the floor at any given time are transmitted to RAES
This paper discusses key findings of the Detailed Assessment of the Securities Clearance and Settlement Systems for Denmark. The assessment recommends that securities settlement systems should have a well-founded, clear, and transparent legal basis in the relevant jurisdiction. Confirmation of trades between market participants should occur as soon as possible after trade execution, but no later than trade date (T+0). Where confirmation of trades by indirect market participants is required, it should occur as soon as possible after trade execution, preferably on T+0, but no later than T+1.
A taxonomy of existing and planned automated trade execution systems in financial markets is provided. Over 50 automated market structures in 16 countries are analyzed. The classification scheme is organized around the principle that such markets consist of an algorithm that performs a trade matching function, together with information display and transmission mechanisms. Automated market structures are classified by ordered sets of trade execution priority rules, trade matching protocols and associated degree of automation of price discovery, and transparency, to include informational asymmetries between classes of market participants. Systematic differences in systems across types of financial instruments, geographical market centers, and over time are analyzed.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix discusses initial performance and other issues relating to the implementation of the value-added tax in Mauritius in 1998. The paper highlights that as the Mauritius economy has continued to expand at a relati