Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 26 items for :

  • "teacher wage bill" x
Clear All
Fernanda Brollo, Emine Hanedar, and Mr. Sébastien Walker
This paper assesses the additional spending required to make substantial progress towards achieving the SDGs in Pakistan. We focus on critical areas of human (education and health) and physical (electricity, roads, and water and sanitation) capital. For each sector, we document the progress to date, assess where Pakistan stands relative to its peers, highlight key challenges, and estimate the additional spending required to make substantial progress. The estimates for the additional spending are derived using the IMF SDG costing methodology. We find that to achieve the SDGs in these sectors would require additional annual spending of about 16 percent of GDP in 2030 from the public and private sectors combined.
International Monetary Fund

will offset the increase in the teacherswage bill by reductions in wage costs elsewhere—leaving the ceiling on the wage bill of the central government unchanged for 2004. The authorities and the teachers’ union will form a commission to design a clear policy on the integration of supplementary benefits into the base wage by end-December—now a structural performance criteria under the arrangement. So far, both parties have agreed on a makeup schedule for missed classes and enhanced community participation in the assessment of school achievements. The Honduran

Fernanda Brollo, Emine Hanedar, and Mr. Sébastien Walker

Gaspar and others (2019) —see details in Annex—to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in critical sectors would require additional annual spending of 16.1 percent of GDP in 2030 from the public and private sectors combined. The breakdown by sector is as follows: Education – raising enrollment rates, improving essential infrastructure, and increasing the quantity and quality of teachers . Additional spending needs in education are about 5.7 percent of GDP. The required spending reflects both a need to (i) increase the teacher wage bill to hire more

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The contents of this report constitute technical advice provided by the staff of the IMF to the authorities of Nigeria in response to their request for technical assistance. Unlocking the potential of a rapidly growing population requires substantial improvements in human and physical capital. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and its largest economy. Recognizing challenges, Nigeria has embraced the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda. The Economic Recovery and Growth Plan 2017–2020 gives prominence to economic, social and environmental issues. This report assesses additional spending associated with making substantial progress along the SDGs. The report focuses on critical areas of human and physical capital. For each sector, the report documents progress to date, assesses Nigeria relative to peers, highlights challenges, and estimates the spending to make substantial SDG progress. Nigeria has shown gradual improvements in education. A gradual and strategic approach should be considered given the relatively large additional spending.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

.e. the number of students as a percentage of the student-age population, SAP indicates the student-age population as a percent of total population, and E oth , pertains to all education spending besides the teacher wage bill as a percent of total expenditures in education. 2. The spending needed in 2030 to perform well in the education SDG is the level of expenditures Nigeria would incur by 2030 due to projected demographics (student-age population) and if it matched, by 2030, today’s levels of the education cost-drivers of the high performers among Nigeria

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

). The higher spending needs reflect both an increase in the teacher wage bill, given the need to bring on board more teachers to support higher enrollment and reduce class size, and higher capital spending. Increasing enrollment rates and improving essential infrastructure . Pakistan needs to increase enrollment rates significantly, particularly in secondary and tertiary education. In line with the SDG targets, the estimates assume that by 2030 gross enrollment rates will reach 50 percent in pre-primary education, 100 percent in primary and secondary education

Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Ms. Tewodaj Mogues, Marian Moszoro, and Mauricio Soto
South Asia has experienced significant progress in improving human and physical capital over the past few decades. Within the region, India has become a global economic powerhouse with enormous development potential ahead. To foster human and economic development, India has shown a strong commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Agenda. This paper focuses on the medium-term development challenges that South Asia, and in particular India, faces to ensure substantial progress along the SDGs by 2030. We estimate the additional spending needed in critical areas of human capital (health and education) and physical capital (water and sanitation, electricity, and roads). We document progress on these five sectors for India relative to other South Asian countries and discuss implications for policy and reform.
Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Ms. Tewodaj Mogues, Marian Moszoro, and Mauricio Soto

percentage of the student-age population), SAP indicates the student-age population as a percent of total population, and E other , pertains to all education spending besides the teacher wage bill as a percent of total expenditures in education. Total education expenditure is therefore a function of the teacherswage bill (i.e., wages times the supply of teachers) divided by the share of the wage bill in total education spending. The supply of teachers, in turn, is derived as the number of students (enrollment rate times the student age population) divided by the

Mr. Giorgio Brosio, Mr. Ehtisham Ahmad, and Ms. Maria Gonzalez
This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. A politically driven and ambitious decentralization program implemented by the authorities since the late 1990s has had mixed results in terms of enhancing service delivery. Paradoxically, concerns with the results of service delivery, partially driven by donors' requirements, have resulted in a deconcentrated system relying on conditional grants and unfunded mandates. This has reduced the incentives, responsibility, and ownership for local authorities to improve service delivery. Crucially, for functions where the local authorities have had full responsibility, better service quality has resulted than in those areas in which there are overlapping responsibilities between the center and the local authorities.
Mr. Giorgio Brosio, Mr. Ehtisham Ahmad, and Ms. Maria Gonzalez

hired to serve the Universal Primary Education Program (UPE), a frontline in the national program for poverty reduction ( Figure. 1 ). The central government was thus confronted with a huge increase in the teacherswage bill over which it had little control. This put great pressure on the government to manage its macroeconomic constraints. In effect, the UPE effectively imposed unfunded mandates on the local governments, as the additional resources transferred were not commensurate with the mandate. At the same time, an upward drift in the central government staff