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Mr. Victor T Thuronyi and Vanistendael Frans

independent professionals who audit accounts (certified public accountants). While the commercial accounts may be of great importance in the determination of tax liability, 35 there is usually no regulation by the tax authorities of persons preparing commercial accounts. D. Preparation of Tax Returns Countries with a system of licensed tax professionals will typically stipulate that only persons who are licensed as return preparers may prepare a return for remuneration. Even when a country does not want to regulate the tax profession or tax advice as such, it may

Mr. John D Brondolo
The global financial and economic crisis presents major challenges for tax agencies. With the economic downturn, tax agencies are encountering emerging compliance problems and greater demands for taxpayer support in the face of prospective budget cuts. To help address these challenges, this paper encourages tax agencies to develop a tax compliance strategy for the crisis by (1) expanding assistance to taxpayers, (2) refocusing enforcement on emerging compliance risks, (3) enacting legislative reforms that facilitate tax administration, and (4) improving communication programs. In each of these areas, the paper identifies specific measures to underpin the strategy, drawing on practices from leading tax agencies and experiences from IMF technical assistance. The paper also highlights emerging tax compliance issues in the financial sector.
Ms. Milka Casanegra de Jantscher and Mr. Vito Tanzi
This paper discusses assessment of income on the basis of approximate indicators as opposed to conventional records. Such a method of assessment, known as presumptive income taxation, is widely used in many developing and industrial countries; however, it has been neglected in public finance literature. In most cases the presumptive approach has been followed for administrative reasons, but this paper argues that more attention should be paid to the efficiency implications of presumptive taxes.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This technical note addresses the following questions: • What are the main ways in which different countries assess and collect personal income tax (PIT) and social insurance contributions (SIC) liabilities (Section I)? • What is the case for transferring responsibility for a country’s SIC collection from its social insurance agency(ies) to its tax authority (Section II)? • What changes does such integration of collection functions involve (Section III)? • Are there any lessons from international experience to guide such reforms (Section IV)? • How to build on these lessons when planning a transfer of collection functions (Section V)? • Are there any beneficial alternatives to full integration of functions (Section VI)?
International Monetary Fund
This report concerns the delivery of a tax administration mission to Moldova during February 8 – 21, 2012 by the Fiscal Affairs Department (FAD) of the IMF as a component of implementing FAD's technical assistance strategy for Southeast Europe.