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Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, Christine Kamunge, Pooja Karnane, Salma Khalid, and Ms. Kalpana Kochhar
New technologies?digitalization, artificial intelligence, and machine learning?are changing the way work gets done at an unprecedented rate. Helping people adapt to a fast-changing world of work and ameliorating its deleterious impacts will be the defining challenge of our time. What are the gender implications of this changing nature of work? How vulnerable are women’s jobs to risk of displacement by technology? What policies are needed to ensure that technological change supports a closing, and not a widening, of gender gaps? This SDN finds that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men across all sectors and occupations?tasks that are most prone to automation. Given the current state of technology, we estimate that 26 million female jobs in 30 countries (28 OECD member countries, Cyprus, and Singapore) are at a high risk of being displaced by technology (i.e., facing higher than 70 percent likelihood of being automated) within the next two decades. Female workers face a higher risk of automation compared to male workers (11 percent of the female workforce, relative to 9 percent of the male workforce), albeit with significant heterogeneity across sectors and countries. Less well-educated and older female workers (aged 40 and above), as well as those in low-skill clerical, service, and sales positions are disproportionately exposed to automation. Extrapolating our results, we find that around 180 million female jobs are at high risk of being displaced globally. Policies are needed to endow women with required skills; close gender gaps in leadership positions; bridge digital gender divide (as ongoing digital transformation could confer greater flexibility in work, benefiting women); ease transitions for older and low-skilled female workers.
Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, and Salma Khalid
Using individual level data on task composition at work for 30 advanced and emerging economies, we find that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men?tasks that are more prone to automation. To quantify the impact on jobs, we relate data on task composition at work to occupation level estimates of probability of automation, controlling for a rich set of individual characteristics (e.g., education, age, literacy and numeracy skills). Our results indicate that female workers are at a significantly higher risk for displacement by automation than male workers, with 11 percent of the female workforce at high risk of being automated given the current state of technology, albeit with significant cross-country heterogeneity. The probability of automation is lower for younger cohorts of women, and for those in managerial positions.
Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, and Salma Khalid

to automation, focusing on gender differences in labor market outcomes. We use individual-level data on task composition at work from the OECD’s Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) for 30 advanced and emerging economies to identify threats and opportunities from technological progress for workers across sectors, occupations, and countries. Following the seminal task-based framework of Autor, Levy, and Murnane (2003) , we first document the relative exposure of men and women to routine, abstract/analytical, and manual tasks

risk of replacement by technology. Statistical significance levels: *** p < 0.01; ** p < 0.05; * p < 0.1. At the sectoral level, more women in accommodation and food services, retail trade, and transportation face a high risk of automation ( Figure 2 ). Women are also overrepresented in sectors relatively less exposed to automation, such as education and health care. However, even within less-automation-prone sectors, women face a higher risk than men. These differences suggest that not only selection of men and women across sectors but also variation in task

Mariya Brussevich, Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, Christine Kamunge, Pooja Karnane, Salma Khalid, and Ms. Kalpana Kochhar

gender gaps? This SDN . Using individual-level data on task composition at work, this SDN finds that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men across all sectors and occupations―tasks that are most prone to automation. Given the current state of technology, we estimate that 26 million female jobs in 30 countries (28 OECD member countries, Cyprus, and Singapore) are at a high risk of being displaced by technology (i.e., facing higher than 70 percent likelihood of being automated) within the next two decades. Female workers face a higher risk of automation

Nagwa Riad

compared with about 6 percent for other jobs. Out of the ordinary Source : Autor, David, and Brendan Price. 2013. “The Changing Task Composition of the US Labor Market: An Update of Autor, Levy and Murnane.” MIT Working Paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. While cognitive skills are necessary, they are not all it takes. Soft skills such as teamwork, creativity, adaptability, and social and cultural awareness are just as important. Harvard education and economics professor David Deming finds the strongest job and wage growth in

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

being created, many jobs involving low- and middle-skill routine tasks are already being eliminated through automation and artificial intelligence. Women tend to perform more routine tasks than men, increasing their exposure to automation. Based on individual-level data on task composition at work for 30 countries, Brussevich and others (2018) estimate the proportion of the female working population that is at risk of being displaced by automation given the current state of technology. They find that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men―tasks that

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
The 2019 Article IV Consultation with Singapore analyses that Singapore’s growth is expected to continue to moderate as export momentum slows and growth drivers shift back to domestic demand. Risks to the near-term outlook are tilted to the downside and arise mainly from external sources. Over the medium term, modern services are expected to become increasingly important in driving growth. The report highlights that policies should be geared toward addressing the challenges to growth and inequality posed by shifts in the global economy, aging, and technological change, which could also promote external rebalancing. Policies have been aimed at boosting growth while promoting greater equity. The authorities are implementing measures to turn Singapore into a global innovation hub, redoubling efforts to boost labor productivity through investment in human, physical and organizational capital, and digitalization. Singapore is also emerging as a regional leader in fintech, supported by Monetary Authority of Singapore. Meanwhile, social policies are being updated, with the aim of raising wages and standards of living for lower-skilled Singaporeans.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper focuses on millennials who are increasingly looking to find their way in the sharing economy, a phenomenon made possible by the emergence of digital platforms that facilitate the matching of buyer and seller. Jobs in the sharing economy—like driving for Uber or Lyft—help some millennials make ends meet, even if such temporary gigs are a far cry from the fulltime jobs with traditional pension plans and other benefits their parents often enjoyed. This generation also enthusiastically embraces the services of the sharing economy, which provides access to everything from beds to cars to boats without the hassle of ownership. Loath to buy big-ticket items such as cars and houses, millennials have sharply different spending habits from those of preceding generations. Millennials confront obstacles to prosperity that their parents didn’t face. They are better educated than previous generations—but in today’s world, that is not enough to guarantee financial success.