foreign investment and technology transfer, helped enterprises operate more competitively. Most of the divested enterprises streamlinedstaff as new management took over. 1/ Divested enterprises were also subjected to market forces, so that, as government protection was withdrawn, the enterprises bore the full brunt of competition, including that from imported products. Thus, while increased production efficiency improved products or services and boosted selection, prices were raised to market levels.
The direct impact of divestiture on wages and employment has been
This paper presents a Joint Staff Advisory Note on Nigeria’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Within the framework of Nigeria’s federation, policy coordination between the three tiers of government is critical for achieving poverty reduction objectives. The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) provides for a considerable increase in public investments, which primarily reflects the government’s desire to address the country’s vast development requirements. NEEDS places considerable emphasis on strengthening public expenditure management to ensure that spending is effective, efficient, and clearly linked to the achievement of objectives of NEEDS.
This paper explores how the Fund's instruments and practices might be adapted to support sound policies in low-income members, in particular those that do not have a need or want to use Fund resources.
The loss of trade preferences in textiles in 2005, the reform to the European Union’s sugar protocol for 2006–10, and higher international oil prices have brought about a permanent deterioration in Mauritius’s terms of trade. This 2007 Article IV Consultation highlights that the authorities have initiated broad-based reforms to address recent economic setbacks and to raise growth to levels of the previous two decades. Executive Directors have welcomed the authorities’ efforts to tighten monetary policy. This should help to reduce inflation and avoid entrenching inflation expectations.
The 2008 Article IV Consultation analyzes the promise of fiscal discipline and debt relief that has boosted investor confidence and growth in the Kingdom of the Netherlands—Netherlands Antilles. Although exports moderated temporarily, tourism was a bright spot owing to improvements in competitiveness as a result of infrastructure investments, and cost controls from immigration. Executive Directors encouraged the authorities to take the opportunity provided by the large debt relief from the Netherlands government under the dissolution agreement to set the budget and the economy on a more sustainable footing.
Belarus’s economy has performed well owing to its strong macroeconomic policies, which facilitated rapid real income growth, near-full employment, and a reduction in poverty to the lowest level in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Executive Directors welcomed the disciplined monetary and fiscal policies. They commended the efforts to curb budgetary transfers and subsidies, reduce the tax burden, and strengthen the financial system. They appreciated the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus (NBRB) in strengthening the supervisory frameworks, and stressed the need for fiscal tightening and strengthening of its policies, reforms, and economic performance.
Portugal’s economic adjustment has continued, but the contraction in output has been milder than expected. The 2012 outlook for Europe has deteriorated substantially, with growth revised down by 1¼ percentage points relative to spring forecasts. Substantially higher capital requirements across Europe, coupled with cuts in exposure to the periphery, are placing further pressure on banks and the flow of credit. The authorities have made significant progress in revenue administration reform and public administration restructuring.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Annex examines the impact of cocoa taxation on cocoa supply in Ghana. The paper describes historical developments in cocoa production. The effects of the taxation of cocoa in Ghana are evaluated and a dynamic model of cocoa supply is estimated and used for simulations. The paper concludes that the most important factors adversely affecting the cocoa sector were government policies. Specifically, in the late 1960s and the 1970s, the effective cocoa duty rates were punitive and the cocoa sector was further hit by policies of overvalued exchange rate.