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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Aging Speed 11. Labor Compensation, 2019 12. Consumption Expenditure, 2018 13. Housing and Transport Expenditure, 2018 ANNEXES I. Identifying Structural Drivers of Consumption II. Consumption Expenditure Distribution, Based on Household Expenditure Surveys References LABOR MARKET POLICY RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 CRISIS A. Impact of COVID-19 on the Labor Market B. Short Term Labor Market Measures to Address the COVID-19 Crisis C. Recovery Measures D. Concluding Remarks FIGURES 1. Rate of Unemployment 2. Quarterly Employment Change 3

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

) approach. Our results indicate that while Indian exports respond positively to international relative-price fluctuations in the short-run and export price competitiveness in the long-run, binding supply-side constraints (notably energy shortages) dampen price responsiveness in the short-term. Labor market rigidities affect Indian export performance over the long-term. This underscores the importance of exchange rate flexibility as a shock absorber, including in responding to external demand shocks, as well as policies to alleviate supply-side bottlenecks in the economy

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

construction sector declined by 11.3 percent in 2020, compared to 7.8 percent and 3.2 percent in manufacturing and services respectively. The significant decline in total employment was driven by the non-resident workers’ employment loss (13.7 percent in 2020), which cushioned the impact on the resident labor market and overall unemployment rate. Figure 3. Unemployment Rate (In percent) Source: CEIC Data Figure 4. Sector-wise Total Employment (In thousands) Source; SGP Ministry of Manpower. B. Short Term Labor Market Measures to Address the

Ana Lariau and Lucy Qian Liu

. Bonn : Institute of Labor Economics . Guven , C. , Sotirakopoulos , P. , & Ulker , A. ( 2020 ). Short-term labour market effects of COVID-19 and the associated national lockdown in Australia: evidence from Longitudinal Labour Force Survey . GLO Discussion Paper No. 635 . Essen : Global Labor Organization . Hacioglu-Hoke , S. , Kanzig , D. R. , & Surico , P. ( 2021 ). The distributional impact of the pandemic . European Economic Review , 134 ( C ). IMF . ( 2020a ). Spain: Staff Report for the 2020 Article IV Consultation

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

in other advanced countries. However, TFP growth has also been sluggish, which may reflect a lack of competition . Israel’s product market regulation is more restrictive than in any of its peers, both in terms of economy-wide regulation as well as sectoral product market restrictions. Competition is further reduced by the small size of the economy—in many ways, Israel is like an island economy. Employment Rate (Percent of working age population aged 15-64) Source: OECD Short-term Labour Market Statistics. 49. The poverty rate in Israel is near

International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & and Review Department

, borrow, make payments and manage risk. Indicators are provided by gender and other dimensions. ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) Social Institutions and Gender Index . Includes rankings in 2012 and 2009 for over 100 countries. Contains information on discriminatory family code; restricted physical integrity; son bias; restricted resources and entitlements; and restricted civil liberties. Employment by gender . Includes short-term labor market statistics; quarterly and real-time. Program for International Student

Ana Lariau and Lucy Qian Liu
We analyze the differential impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the Spanish labor market across population groups, as well as its implications for income inequality. The main finding is that young, less educated, and low skilled workers, as well as women are the most affected by the COVID-19 shock in terms of job loss rates. The differential impacts were especially acute at the height of the pandemic in 2020 and remain robust after taking into account the heterogeneity of sector characteristics. Given that these vulnerable groups were positioned in the lower end of the income distribution before the crisis, we hypothesize that income inequality likely has increased due to the pandemic. Policies aiming at reducing inequality in the labor market need to go beyond measures that target the hardest-hit sectors and support the vulnerable groups more directly.
Giang Ho and Ms. Kazuko Shirono

, creating an endogeneity bias. Last but not least, beyond the short-run adjustment in wages and employment, the output mix and technology could also adjust to the new skill mix in the longer run (see e.g. Dustmann et al. (2007) for a survey of the theory and empirics of migration). The rest of this subsection attempts to quantify the short-term labor market impacts of migration on the host economy using two complementary approaches. First, a panel regression framework is used to estimate the effect of migration on unemployment developments in a sample of OECD

Mr. Romain A Duval, Davide Furceri, and João Tovar Jalles
This paper explores the short-term employment effect of deregulating job protection for regular workers and how it varies with prevailing business cycle conditions. We apply a local projection method to a newly constructed “narrative” dataset of major regular job protection reforms covering 26 advanced economies over the past four decades. The analysis relies on country-sector-level data, using as an identifying assumption the fact that stringent dismissal regulations are more binding in sectors that are characterized by a higher “natural” propensity to regularly adjust their workforce. We find that the responses of sectoral employment to large job protection deregulation shocks depend crucially on the state of the economy at the time of reform——they are positive in an expansion, but become negative in a recession. These findings are consistent with theory, and are robust to a broad range of robustness checks including an Instrumental Variable approach using political economy drivers of reforms as instruments. Our results provide a case for undertaking job protection reform in good times, or for designing it in ways that enhance its short-term impact.