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Mr. Andrew Baer, Mr. Kwangwon Lee, and James Tebrake
Digitalization and the innovative use of digital technologies is changing the way we work, learn, communicate, buy and sell products. One emerging digital technology of growing importance is cloud computing. More and more businesses, governments and households are purchasing hardware and software services from a small number of large cloud computing providers. This change is having an impact on how macroeconomic data are compiled and how they are interpreted by users. Specifically, this is changing the information and communication technology (ICT) investment pattern from one where ICT investment was diversified across many industries to a more concentrated investment pattern. Additionally, this is having an impact on cross-border flows of commercial services since the cloud service provider does not need to be located in the same economic territory as the purchaser of cloud services. This paper will outline some of the methodological and compilation challenges facing statisticians and analysts, provide some tools that can be used to overcome these challenges and highlight some of the implications these changes are having on the way users of national accounts data look at investment and trade in commercial services.
Mr. Andrew Baer, Mr. Kwangwon Lee, and James Tebrake

case these there is not any data for the period. Canada is excluded due to a methodological break in 2017. 2 Except of motor vehicles and motorcycles. The extent of cloud adoption differs across countries, sectors, and firm size. Among OECD countries, the share of businesses purchasing cloud computing services ( Figure 4 ) in 2018 ranges from a high of 65 percent in Finland to a low of 10 percent in Latvia. The OECD reports ( Figure 3 ) that over 60 percent of firms in the Information and Communication sector use cloud computing services but the comparable