consumption as a result of higher inequality. Some of these trends may be impossible to replicate or sustain at the global level (for example, someone must produce steel and mine cobalt).
The future energy saturationpath of fast-growing emerging markets is paved with uncertainty, but there is hope. Changes in the global energy mix could increase the chance of timely mitigation of climate change. However, current mitigation pledges in nationally determined contributions-which are voluntary-even if fully implemented, would be consistent with a 3°C
The Spring-Summer 2019 issue of the IMF Research Perspectives explores how technology deals with old questions. Articles discuss the ways technological progress and the increased availability of data have helped in some areas, while presenting new challenges for analyzing various matters. The issue also includes an interview with Gita Gopinath, the new director of the IMF Research Department.