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Mr. Jesus R Gonzalez-Garcia, Mr. Ermal Hitaj, Mr. Montfort Mlachila, Arina Viseth, and Mustafa Yenice
Amid rapid population growth, migration in sub-Saharan Africa has been increasing briskly over the last 20 years. Up to the 1990s, the stock of migrants—citizens of one country living in another country—was dominated by intraregional migration, but over the last 15 years, migration outside the region has picked up sharply. In the coming decades, sub-Saharan African migration will be shaped by an ongoing demographic transition involving an enlargement of the working-age population, and migration outside the region, in particular to advanced economies, is set to continue expanding. This note explores the main drivers of sub-Saharan African migration, focusing on migration outside the region, as this has greater global spillovers. It finds that the economic impact of migration for the region occurs mainly through two channels. First, the migration of young and educated workers—brain drain—takes a toll as human capital is already scarce in the region, although some recent studies suggest that migration may have also a positive effect—brain gain. Second, remittances represent an important source of foreign exchange and income in a number of sub-Saharan African countries, contribute to the alleviation of poverty, and help smooth business cycles.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

, international cooperation is needed to address large waves of refugee migration, especially into emerging market and developing economies . This chapter was prepared by Philipp Engler, Keiko Honjo, Margaux MacDonald, Roberto Piazza (lead), and Galen Sher, under the guidance of Florence Jaumotte. It includes contributions from Jorge Alvarez, Hamid Faruqee, Emilio Fernandez-Corugedo, Jaime Guajardo, Xin Li, and Jean-Marc Natal, and was prepared with support from Shan Chen, Jaden Jonghyuk Kim, and Ilse Peirtsegaele. Giovanni Peri was a consultant for the project

Nicolo Bird and Mr. David Amaglobeli

the share of immigrants in the population and net fiscal impacts, which suggests other factors –such as host country and migrant characteristics (including the type of migration)—play an important role ( OECD 2013 ; IMF 2016 ). 14 Differences between economic migrants and refugees : While the decision of economic migrants to relocate to another country is based on the relative opportunities afforded abroad, refugee migration is ultimately being driven by vulnerability to persecution and access to resources for migration ( Brell and others 2020 ). As a result, the

Nicolo Bird and Mr. David Amaglobeli
Refugees from Ukraine face multiple vulnerabilities, with many requiring humanitarian assistance to meet basic needs. In response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, host countries in Europe and beyond have adopted measures to support refugees, including residency rights, free movement across countries, access to labor markets and integration policies, health and education services, housing options, banking services, and social protection systems. Drawing on previous IMF work on the economic challenges of refugees, this note provides an overview of policy responses needed to provide effective support to refugees fleeing Ukraine.
Mr. Jesus R Gonzalez-Garcia, Mr. Ermal Hitaj, Mr. Montfort Mlachila, Arina Viseth, and Mustafa Yenice

the total, but migration to the rest of the world has been increasing faster. Refugee migration has fallen since the 1990s, but migration for economic reasons has increased quickly. The demographic transition that is already ongoing in sub-Saharan Africa implies strong growth of the working-age population, which typically feeds migration. Most likely, there will be spillovers from the region toward the rest of the world in the form of increased migration to advanced economies. Projections suggest that the ratio of sub-Saharan African migrants to OECD population

Sabine Klinger, Anvar Musayev, Jean-Marc Natal, and Enzo Weber
German wages have not increased very rapidly in the last decade despite strong employment growth and a 5 percentage point decline in the unemployment rate. Our analysis shows that a large part of the decline in unemployment was structural. Micro-founded Phillips curves fit the German data rather well and suggest that relatively low wage growth can be largely attributed to low inflation expectations and low productivity growth. There is no evidence – from either aggregate or micro-level administrative data – that large immigration flows since 2012 have had dampening effects on aggregate wage growth, as complementarity effects offset composition and competition effects.
Sabine Klinger, Anvar Musayev, Jean-Marc Natal, and Enzo Weber

, vol. 38 ( 152 ), pages 543 – 559 . Sbordone , Argia M. 2002 . “ Prices and Unit Labor Costs: A New Test of Price Stickiness .” Journal of Monetary Economics , vol. 49 ( 2 ), pages 265 – 292 , March . The Economist . 2004 . “ Germany on the mend .” The Economist , November 17 , 2004. https://www.economist.com/news/2004/11/17/germany-on-the-mend . Weber , Enzo , and Roland Weigand . 2018 . “ Identifying macroeconomic effects of refugee migration to Germany .” Economics Bulletin , vol. 38 ( 2 ), 852 – 862 . Woodford , Michael . 1998