categories, even though some of them belong to the commodity and primary material sectors that Paraguay specializes in. On the other hand, of a couple categories in this list Paraguay already exports a lot, such as 01: meat and preparation, but the recommender system suggests there is still significant room to increase the export varieties in these categories.
Table 7: Paraguay: Top 10 Categories with Increased Product Shares
Difference (rec. -actual)
Machinery specialized for
This paper presents a set of collaborative filtering algorithms that produce product recommendations to diversify and optimize a country's export structure in support of sustainable long-term growth. The recommendation system is able to accurately predict the historical trends in export content and structure for high-growth countries, such as China, India, Poland, and Chile, over 20-year spans. As a contemporary case study, the system is applied to Paraguay, to create recommendations for the country's export diversification strategy.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
-RCA exports in category 7 (machinery and transport equipment), the models suggest that the country could have a comparative advantage in some products in this category (see Table 5 for some of the examples).
Uruguay: Top 10 SITC 2-digit Categories with Increased Shares in Total High-RCA Exports 1/
(A) Actual share
(B) Rec. share
Difference (B – A)
Miscellaneous manufactured articles
Metalliferous ores & metal scrap
Machinery specialized for
a productname will not be sufficient if the size of the package changes, which would, in turn, affect the price received. The essential purpose of a good product specification is to ensure that a consistent price is collected from period to period, relating to a consistent product with the same terms of sale in each period. Table 6.1 lists the main criteria that could affect the price of a product and could form part of a specification.
6.33 The above details combine to give a tighter specification for the product than just the description alone. Specifying a
inclusion in Madagascar . Financial institutions increasingly resort to electronic money intermediaries to support their activities, on the model of BNI Madagascar who recently launched a new credit productnamed KRED, aimed at SMEs operating in the informal sector mainly relying on mobile technologies.
C. Access to Credit—Main Obstacles
22. Despite a relatively sound financial system, financial intermediation remains low . Credit to the private sector ratio is well below the one in peer countries (14 percent of the GDP at end-2018 against an average of 25
This Selected Issues paper analyses tax revenue mobilization potential in Madagascar and lessons learned from successful episodes in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The analysis shows that there is a significant tax potential including through a possible broadening of the tax base, notably for consumption taxation; and underscores the importance of a comprehensive revenue strategy, including by combining reforms in tax policy and in tax and customs administrations. Significant progress has been made in terms of organization, simplification of procedures, management, and dialogue with the taxpayers. Communication between the two tax administrations could be improved. The tax administrations should notify each other if a case of fraud. Also, the domestic tax administration should have access to customs import/export data: many importers are active and make customs declarations without being identified by the domestic tax administration. Given the weaknesses in the provision of public services, social dialogue and consultation are important to explain the rationality of the tax system and the use of the tax revenue by the State.
This paper provides an empirical benchmarking of growth, productivity and export patterns for developing NREs against other low and middle income developing countries, to inform policy discussions and future analytical work. There is stark heterogeneity in the association of resource sector and overall growth outcomes, by commodity and degree of dependence. Over the long term, inter-sectoral growth dynamics have been more muted for NREs than other developing countries, especially at lower incomes. Despite productivity convergence in mining, as expected, productivity growth in manufacturing and services was generally lower in NREs. Exceptions are few, in East Asia and the CIS area which experienced broad-based productivity growth. NRE product exports are more concentrated and relatively less complex, though we find increasingly diversified service export baskets. Technological progress and specialization in trade in services may offer diversification options for the future.
Top 80 products with emerging comparative advantage from NREs
(ranked by product complexity)
income level associated with product (PRODY)
Share in Merchandise expoets 2007-11 (avg)
Parts, nes of the pumps and compressor falling within heading 7431
Latin America & Caribbean
Upper middle income