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Amr Hosny and Alexandre Sollaci
The COVID-19 shock has underscored the importance of digital tools for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of social protection systems. Cross-country evidence suggests that digital IDs linked with bank and/or mobile money accounts can improve the delivery of social protection programs and better reach eligible beneficiaries. Using data from the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, we present micro simulations on the welfare gains of digital social protection during the pandemic. While digitalization offers opportunities, potential risks would need to be carefully managed. Vietnam is advancing on individual pieces of the digitalization puzzle, including full digital IDs and mobile money, and the next step is to put these pieces together.
Mr. Eivind Tandberg and S. Ramamurthy

Accounting and Procurement Payments accounting Revenue accounting Payroll Assets Management Cash Management and Bank Reconciliation The consulting firm was required to research available standard application software packages and assess the suitability of their functionality to government systems. It was found that there were a number of packages that were able to meet the government system requirements. Preparation of functional requirements This task involved detailed study and analysis of existing functional processes, as well as the

Amr Hosny and Alexandre Sollaci

mobile and fixed ATMs ( Devereux and Vincent, 2010 ). Payments to businesses from the government (G2B) have also been increasingly disbursed using digital methods in many countries. In Peru, for instance, 59 percent of subnational government G2B procurement payments were made via checks and 41 percent via electronic transfers before the pandemic ( Agur et al, 2020 ). In Vietnam, government transfer payments are predominately done in cash, compared to ASEAN and EMLIDC peers ( Figure 7 ). Fig 7: G2P (Government Transfer Payments) (share of payment method, in

Mr. Eivind Tandberg and S. Ramamurthy
Kazakhstan’s government has established a comprehensive and efficient treasury system for government revenues and expenditures, and introduced a state-of-the-art government financial management information system. Kazakhstan is among the leading BRO (Baltics, Russia, and other Former Soviet Union) countries in modernizing its budget execution system despite remaining challenges in other areas of fiscal management. The successful outcomes are related partly to the high quality of the reform process, and partly to the institutional design of the Kazakh treasury. Some design features are common for most well-functioning treasuries. Other features are related to the specific economic factors, institutional features, and financial management objectives of a transition economy, with a strong emphasis on fiscal control and financial discipline.
Israel Fainboim Yaker and Sailendra Pattanayak

deficit in the account, deposits are made or funds are provided centrally by the DO in order to make the final balance zero every day. Every authority has one or more transaction accounts at one or more banks. The balances in the authorities’ transaction accounts are transferred to and collected in a top account at the respective bank and then onward to the SCR. This takes place three times a day. The authorities’ accounts at the DO are interest-bearing. The DO procures payment services by framework agreements with the banks. The agreements regulate various types of

Israel Fainboim Yaker and Sailendra Pattanayak
A treasury single account (TSA) is an essential tool for consolidating and managing governments’ cash resources, thus minimizing borrowing costs. In countries with fragmented government banking arrangements, the establishment of a TSA should receive priority in the public financial management reform agenda. Drawing on the lessons of the Fund’s work in several countries in establishing a TSA, this paper explains its concept, essential features, and potential benefits. It also presents alternative models and approaches for designing a TSA that take into account specific country contexts as well as the preconditions and desirable sequencing for its successful implementation. Finally, the paper includes country examples from different regions in support of the analysis and recommendations.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

available resources, henceforth preventing fiscal slippages. The cash management system will be strengthened by the ongoing progress towards the operationalization of the TSA by end-2021, with the full deployment of the recently procured payment gateway. The gateway will facilitate the centralization and instantaneous recording of all government revenues not collected by the GRA which will be integrated to the IFMIS. The process of consolidation of accounts at commercial banks and at the Central Bank continued with the Senegambia bridge toll revenue now moved from

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

can be taken in this respect, including: creating a database of eligible suppliers (based on compliance and previous record criteria), publishing all tenders online to allow for equal opportunities and competition, including for SMEs, making public the winning bids as well as prices. Moreover, enforcement is of paramount importance. In this respect, payments in cases of non-compliant procurement payments should be delayed pending proper investigation, irregular contracts should be voided and prosecuted, and centralized procurement could be used to gather information

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

by donors. It does so on a monthly basis, based on disbursement plans and execution, to cross- check when funds are disbursed and if they are in line with plans. Additionally, the committee will supervise the application of expenditure execution procedures (commitment, procurement, payment). Finally, when relevant the committee will also make recommendations to improve the efficiency and transparency of Covid-related expenditures. Covid-related expenditures will be audited . The Procurement Directorate will publish all tenders, the criteria for selection, as well

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The Gambia is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 cases. The vaccination campaign started in early March 2021, but the pace is slow, due to vaccine availability and hesitancy. Presidential and parliamentary elections are planned for December 2021 and April 2022, respectively.