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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This report summarizes key findings and recommendations from a remote technical assistance (TA) assignment performed by a short-term expert (STX), Mr. Djamel Bouhabel, from January 17 to February 4, 2021, to the General Customs Authority of Iraq (GCA). The main objective of the TA was to advise GCA on the development and effective application of customs assessment processes based on international standards and best practices.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

AND NEXT STEPS BOX 1. Summary of Recommendations FIGURE 1. Government Revenues from 2016 to 2020 (USD Billions) APPENDICES I. Audit Process–Preferential Rules of Origin II. The Customs Valuation Audit Process Glossary ASYCUDA Automated System for Customs Data BCP Border Crossing Point BDV Brussel Definition of Value HQ Headquarters HS Harmonized System ICT Information and Communications Technology IT Information Technology GCA General Customs Authority PCA Post

Bahram Nowzad

freedom is now increasingly questioned by the LDCs, which question its validity as the philosophical pillar of what would constitute the most efficient system of world trade and payments. In this view, a new order must evolve, which would be less dependent on market forces. It would be characterized by greater organization, intervention, regulation, and preferential rules in favor of the LDCs. This line of reasoning is only partially based on economic considerations and scant attention is paid to the possible costs—particularly in terms of managerial burdens and

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

examine the goods’ origin. Also, consular visa on certificate of origin may authenticate the document, but it does not assure the contents are just because Iraqi representative offices unlikely have capacity to check the contents of certificate of origin. During this STX assignment, no unit in GCA is accountable of the objective of the current process of certificate of origin and determination of goods’ origin. Except goods coming from Jordan, goods’ origin information may be used only to comply trade statistics which applies non-preferential rules of origin. 18

Shahid Javed Burki

obtaining preferential treatment. With hindsight, however, it is clear that the world trading system has not been static, enjoying unprecedented growth rates throughout the 1960s and much of the 1970s. This trade was to the benefit of the North and South alike, and without much impetus from preferential rules and schemes. Indeed, since 1963, the share of manufactures in OECD nonfuel imports from developing countries rose from 13 percent to 51 percent. Without belittling the contributions of preferential schemes (such as the Generalized System of Preferences) to developing

Mr. Dominique Desruelle and Mr. Alfred Schipke

defined in the context of an FTA. The IDB’s and AECI’s Guide to Good Practices on Aspects of Customs Management in the Processes of Territorial Integration, 2006 ( Guía de Buenas Prácticas Sobre Aspectos de la Gestión Aduanera en los Procesos de Integración Territorial ) points out that preferential rules of origin are normally much stricter than nonpreferential rules and need to be defined precisely. This is because goods that are subject to non-preferential rules are afforded advantageous terms of trade. The members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are required

Mr. Shailendra J. Anjaria

of preferential rules. The General Agreement allows developing countries to pursue protective trade policies (for infant industry or development purposes, for example). Further, it includes more lenient treatment of developing countries in the application of rules than industrial countries. For example, the GATT stipulates that a developing country should consult with the Contracting Parties on its balance of payments restrictions under Article XVIII only once every two years; industrial countries invoking similar restrictions are expected to consult under Article