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Mr. Kevin J Carey, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, and Ms. Catherine A Pattillo

changes in head-count poverty has proved to be very informative about the reasons for variations in the rate of poverty reduction across countries. A method proposed by Datt and Ravallion (1992) allows a decomposition of country-level poverty changes into a growth component and an inequality component. The growth component reflects the rate of growth and poverty response to it (the elasticity of poverty with respect to growth), whereas the inequality component reflects changes in distribution. Kraay ( 2005 , 2006 ) presents a variance decomposition method that

International Monetary Fund

. Objectives of Fund-Supported Programs III. Program Performance Relative to Objectives A. What explains strong growth but the weak poverty response? B. Why has private sector performance been weak? C. What has underpinned fiscal adjustment in Tanzania? D. Did aid inflows complicate monetary policy and macroeconomic management? E. Were external and debt objectives achieved? F. Have structural reforms improved the economy’s supply response? IV. Implementation Lessons, Program Design, and Conditionality A. What explains the relative success of Fund

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

lower the elasticity. The paper also finds the poverty response to growth to be symmetric across positive and negative macroeconomic shocks. Ghura, Leite, and Tsangarides (2002) also show that though growth is important for poverty reduction, the income of the poor does not rise one to one with per capita income. In addition to growth, macroeconomic policies, especially those aiming at lowering inflation, deepening the financial sector, and raising educational achievements, are important in reducing poverty. The link between macroeconomic policies and poverty is

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
The IMF Research Bulletin, a quarterly publication, selectively summarizes research and analytical work done by various departments at the IMF, and also provides a listing of research documents and other research-related activities, including conferences and seminars. The Bulletin is intended to serve as a summary guide to research done at the IMF on various topics, and to provide a better perspective on the analytical underpinnings of the IMF’s operational work.
International Monetary Fund
The report assesses the Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement. It reviews the success of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) program in achieving rapid growth, low inflation, and a comfortable external position. It highlights that the design of the programs has been appropriate, and conditionality has been focused. It analyzes that the program implementation improved under the PRGF, although some challenges still remain. Against this background, a Policy Support Instrument would be an appropriate form of economic support for Tanzania.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

historical standards, and a greater impact of growth on poverty. Argentina has experienced the largest poverty decline, followed by Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay. Countries with low growth have experienced less impressive declines in poverty. Based on these recent national estimates, on average, a 1 percentage point increase in growth has corresponded to a 1.7 percent reduction in poverty in Latin America between 2002 and 2006 (population weighted). Similarly, studies using household surveys find that the poverty response to growth was about 1

International Monetary Fund

. Source: Staff reports A. What explains strong growth but the weak poverty response? 11. Tanzania’s annual average real growth rate of about 5 percent over the past decade was impressive, especially considering that the economy is dependent on rain-fed agriculture and is thus vulnerable to climatic conditions. Program objectives were broadly appropriate, but were generally not met under the ESAF-supported program, owing largely to adverse weather conditions ( Figure 1 ). 4 That said, growth rates averaging around 4 percent over the ESAF-supported program

Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Ms. Catherine A Pattillo, and Mr. Kevin J Carey
Are improvements in growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since the mid-1990s sustainable? What types of growth strategies contribute the most to reducing poverty? This paper examines these questions in four stages. First, it explores the factors contributing to the post- 1995 improvement in growth. Second, to shed some light on factors associated with substantial jumps in growth rates that are sustained in the medium term, an analysis of the correlates of growth accelerations is presented. Third, the paper examines the consistency of the SSA data with some important predictions from the literature directly linking such areas as fiscal policy, financial development, or institutions and growth. Fourth, it reviews recent evidence regarding lessons on the type of growth process that is most effective at raising the incomes of the poor.
Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Ms. Catherine A Pattillo, and Mr. Kevin J Carey

inequality component. The growth component reflects the rate of growth and poverty response to it (the elasticity of poverty with respect to growth), whereas the inequality component reflects changes in distribution. Kraay ( 2005a , b ) presents a variance decomposition method that further attributes the variation in the Datt-Ravallion growth component to variation in the growth rate and the elasticity. 60 These two components can then be combined with the inequality component to produce three-part decompositions of changes in poverty. The key finding that emerges from

International Monetary Fund

included in those socioeconomic programs. The difficulty of identifying the different strata in a community made it hard to design a profile of those who might be considered poor, or not poor. This distinction is very useful in designing an action plan. 74. With respect to perception of poverty, responses varied with the survey site. Some factors that were mentioned as associated with being poor were: material goods, sources of income, and civil relationships/status. 75. According to the communities covered by the 2005 appraisal, in terms of wealth, the population