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Surjit Bhalla, Karan Bhasin, and Mr. Arvind Virmani
The paper presents estimates of poverty [extreme poverty PPP$1.9 and PPP$3.2] and consumption inequality in India for each of the years 2004-5 through the pandemic year 2020-21. These estimates include, for the first time, the effect of in-kind food subsides on poverty and inequality. Extreme poverty was as low as 0.8 percent in the pre-pandemic year 2019, and food transfers were instrumental in ensuring that it remained at that low level in pandemic year 2020. Post-food subsidy inequality at .294 is now very close to its lowest level 0.284 observed in 1993/94.
Surjit Bhalla, Karan Bhasin, and Mr. Arvind Virmani

above-mentioned incorporation of food subsidies into the estimation of poverty and inequality. We provide a consistent time-series of inequality and poverty levels for both the extreme poverty PPP$1.9, and low middle income poverty (PPP$ 3.2) levels for each of the years 2004–5 to 2020–21 (see Appendix I). Through use of state-level GDP and population data, administrative data on various consumption items, several survey based data (including NSS) we provide a verification on estimates of per capita growth provided by data on national private final consumption

Surjit Bhalla, Karan Bhasin, and Mr. Arvind Virmani

views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management. ABSTRACT : The paper presents estimates of poverty [extreme poverty PPP$1.9 and PPP$3.2] and consumption inequality in India for each of the years 2004–5 through the pandemic year 2020–21. These estimates include, for the first time, the effect of in-kind food subsides on poverty and inequality. Extreme poverty was as low as 0.8 percent in the pre-pandemic year 2019, and food transfers were instrumental in ensuring that it remained at that low level in pandemic year 2020. Post-food subsidy inequality at

Jane Falkingham

International Poverty Standards, 1999 Country Extreme Poverty ( PPP$2.15/day; percent) Total Poverty (PPP$4.30/day; percent) Total Population Extremely Poor (millions) Total Population Poor (millions) Armenia 43.5 86.2 1.65 3.27 Azerbaijan 23.5 64.2 1.87 5.10 Georgia 18.9 54.2 1.02 2.93 Kyrgyz Republic 1 49.1 84.1 2.36 4.04 Moldova 55.4 84.6 2.02 3.09 Tajikistan 68.3 95.8 4.10 5.75 Uzbekistan 2 — — 2.23 6